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A.D. : abbreviation for Latin Ano Dominae, Year of the Lord; see C.E. Common Era.  Generally considered offensive to many non-Messianic Jews who feel it forces them to acknowledge that Yeshua is Lord.

Abaddon !wddba : Destruction

ab ba : father (alt. av)

abba aba : An affectionate way to say father, dear father, or daddy (alt. avva)

Abib byba : (Alt. Aviv) the first month of the Jewish calendar, also called Nisan, during which Pesach falls

ach xa (pl. achim) : brother

acharit tyrxa (alt. Achariyth) : end, final end, last, descendants

Acharit HaYamim : The end of the days. The end times when the Olam Hazeh (the world which is) comes to a close and the Olam Haba (the world which is to come) is about to begin.

Acharon !wrxa (pl. Acharonim) : lit.=last one: post-Rishonim commentator (pl. acharonim)

Achashverosh : Persian king in the Book of Esther

achavah hwxa : brotherhood

Achavah b’Mashiach : Brotherhood in Mashiach

achayot twxa (sg. Achot) : sisters

achdus : unity

achei sheker : false brothers

acheinu : our brother

achim ~yxa (sg. Ach) : brothers

achot (pl. achayot) : sister

achoteinu : our sister

achraius : accountability

achyon : nephew

ad kahn : sufficient for the purpose; enough

ad kdeikach : so much

ad mosai : how much longer

adam : man; humanity; human

Adam : the first man; Adam

Adam Chadash Echad : One New Humanity

Adam HeChadash : The New Humanity

adamah : ground or mud

adamah tova : good ground; good earth

Adar : Sixth month of Hebrew civil calendar: February-March; 14th is Purim

adat : congregation; community

Adat HaEl Chai : the Congregation / Community of the Living God

Adat HaShem : Cogregation / Community of God

aderaba : to the contrary

admat kodesh : holy ground

Admor (pl. admorim) : Acronym for “adoneinu, moreinu, verabbeinu” —“our master, teacher, and rabbi.” A term often applied to Chasidic spiritual leaders

adon (pl. adonim) : lord; master

Adon HaKatzir : the Lord of the Harvest

Adon Olam : “Master of the World,” a concluding hymn

Adonai (alt. Adonoi) : My Lord, Lord of all. Spoken by Jewish people instead of using God’s personal name YHWH (Yahweh) or YHVH (Yahveh)

Adonai echad : “God is one” [Devarim (Deuteronomy) 6:4]

Adonai Eloheinu : LORD our God

Adonai Elohei Tzva’ot (alt. Adonai Tzivos) : LORD God of Hosts

Adonai Elohim : The LORD God

Adonai Tzivos (alt. Adonai Elohei Tzva’ot) : Lord of Armies

Adoneynu : our Lord; Lord

adonim (sg. Adon) : masters

Adonoi (alt. Adonai) : Lord

afikoman (alt. Afikomen) : Gr. for that which comes after, or “dessert.” The half-piece of the central matzah eaten at the end of the Pesach Seder. Traditionally, the children “steal” it at the beginning of the seder and “ransom” it back to the leader of the seder at the end of the meal. In some places, the leader of the seder hides it, and the children have to find it. It is represented in a broken piece of matzah wrapped in linen and buried (hidden).

Agadah : non-legal rabbinic writings

agalim : bulls

Agam HaEish : Lake of Fire

agape : (Gk.) divine love

aggadah (alt. agada, agadah) : stories, parables, philosophical material (pl. agadot, aggadot)

agmat nefesh : grief

agudah : bound together; union

Agudas Yisroel-Agudath : Israel of America, the foremost organization of orthodox Jewry in the United States. A major aspect of its activity is the representation of orthodox Jewish interests before the government.

agunah : a woman whose husband had disappeared, and who could not remarry without witnesses to his death, hence a “bound” woman, lit., a chained one; a woman whose husband refuses to grant a divorce

ahava (alt. Ahavah) : (Heb.) love [n]; equivalent of Gr. agape

ahavah shel achvah : brotherly love

Ahavas HaEmes (alt. HaEmet) : Love of the Truth

ahavas hakesef : love of money

ahavas HaShem : God’s love

ahavat ta’anugot : hedonism

ainikle : (Yid.) grandchild

airusin : betrothal; engagement

aizen : well-founded; incontrovertible

akama : quite a number

akedah : binding

Akedah (alt. Akeida) : Binding an animal for sacrifice; specifically, Avraham’s binding of Yitzhak for sacrifice to God—not consummated. The binding of the sacrifice

Akiba : A rabbi who lived at the time of the second Temple (died c. C.E. 133). He thought Bar Kochba was the Messiah.

Akrab : (alt. akrav) scorpion (pl. akrabim, akrabim)

Al Chet : lit. for the sin; an important Yom Kippur prayer listing sins for which we beg forgiveness

Al Hanisim (alt. Ha-nissim) : thanksgiving for the miracles added to prayer and grace after the meal on the festivals of Chanukkah and Purim

al kiddush HaShem : for the sanctification of God

al kol panim : nevertheless

al menat : in order that

Al Mikrah Megillah : the blessing before the reading of the Megillah

Al Netilat Yadayim : the blessing over the washing of hands before the meal

al pnei hamayim : on the surface of the waters

al taarotz : do not be afraid

alef : The first letter of the Hebrew Alef-Beyt (alphabet)

Alenu Leshabe’ach : a prayer of thanksgiving for being separated from the heathens

Aleinu : “It is Upon Us,” a concluding hymn

alav hashalom : “(May he/she) rest in peace.”

aliyah : Lit., “the going up.” Figuratively speaking, the “home going,” when Jews make a return to the homeland (Israel), either to immigrate or to make pilgrimage. Also used in synagogue service of “going up” to read from the Torah. To “have an aliyah” refers to the honor of being called up to the bimah to recite or chant the blessings over the Torah. (pl. aliyot)

aliyah leregel : pilgrimage

al-killayon : incorruptibility

alma : virgin. Lit., a young woman of marriageable age. However, since sexual promiscuity carried the death penalty, the state of virginity is assumed. (pl. almot)

almanah : widow (pl. almanot)

als : since

alter : old

am : people

Am haAretz : peasantry. Used by the Talmud and thereafter to mean ignorant … people of the land

amal : toil

amen : It is true, so be it, may it become true. (also amein, oimen, omen)

Amidah : Standing prayer, quietly murmured, that is part of each daily service in the synagogue, alternatively called the Tefillah or the Shemoneh Esre. A prayer, recited silently, thrice daily, while standing up, the prayer of the eighteen benedictions.

Amora’im : lit. explainers : Gemarah-era commentators (200-500 CE)

ammud : pillar

Ammudei HaKehillah : Pillars of the Kehillah

amol : formerly

amolike times : olden times

Amora : Speaker, interpreter; expounder of Talmudic (Mishnaic) law from compilation of Mishnah to redaction of entire Talmud, in Babylon (where the amoraim were known as Mar or Rav) and in Palestine (where they were designated Rabbi). Their discussions and teachings, 220-550, form the Gemara, lengthier sections of the Talmud that follow each Mishnah (pl. Amoraim)

anafah : heron

ana’fim : the branches

anan : cloud (pl. ananim)

Anan Edim : Cloud of Witnesses

anashim : men

anashim ne’emanim : faithful men

anav : humble

anavah : meekness; humility

anavat ruach : a spirit of meekness

Anenu : a passage added to prayer on public fast days

Ani Ma’amin : Literally: I believe; often sung at the seder and at Yom Hashoah observances in memory of Holocaust victims who sang this song of faith on their way to their deaths : phrase that begins each of Maimonides’ Thirteen Principles of Faith

Ani Ma’amin hoda’ah : confession

aniyim : the poor

anochiyut : selfishness

Anshei K’neset Hagdolah : Sages of the Great Synod during the first part of the Second Sanctuary Period

anshuldiks : pardon

aphikomen : (alt. afikomen) Hebrew transliteration of Greek derivative, epikomios. That which comes last, the hidden Passover bread eaten at the seder.

apikoros : skeptic; unbeliever

apikorosim : unbelievers

apocalyptic : ideas and teachings pertaining to the revelation of Messiah (apocalypse) of the last days and the end of the world

Apocrypha : A Greek adjective in the neuter plural (from apokruphos, “hidden, concealed”) denotes strictly “things concealed.” “Old Testament” Apocrypha, specifically the fourteen books written after the “Old Testament” canon was closed and which, being the least remote from the canonical books, laid strongest claim to canonicity … The body of Jewish literature written between the second century B.C.E. and the second century C.E., not included in the canon of the Bible.

apostate : one whose actions are not consistent with the standards of behavior set by his religious community; compare heretic

arain getun : engrossed

Aravah (pl. Aravot) : willow branch taken as one of the four species on Succot (the Feast of Tabernacles).

arayot : lions

arba’ah : four

Arba’ah Minim (the Four Species) : Palm, myrtle, willow, and citron; another name for the lulav and etrog together, used on Sukkot

arba’im : forty

arbaa asar : fourteen

arbaat elafim : four thousand

Arbah Chayyot : Four living beings

arbah pinot ha’aretz : the four corners of the earth

arbaim yom varbaim lailah : forty days and forty nights

arbe; arbeh : locusts

arelim : uncircumcised ones

ari : (alt. arye) lion

Ariel : Lion of God; Fireplace on God’s altar

Aron haKodesh : Literally: the Holy Ark. The special cabinet in which the Torah scrolls are kept in the synagogue The Holy Ark is called Heichal in Sephardic synagogues.

aron met : coffin

aron otzaram : chest of treasury

arye (alt. ari) : lion

asach : a lot of

asam : barn

asarah : ten

Aseret Yemei Teshuvah : the ten days of penitence

Asham : A guilt offering made by one who has sinned against his fellow man

ashem : guilty

ashir : oisher; rich man (pl. ashirim)

ashirut : riches

Ashkenazi : (alt. Ashicenazi) Referring to a cultural branch of Judaism that developed in northern and eastern Europe and from which most American Jews are descended. (pl. Ashkenazim, Ashicenazim)

ashma; ashmah : guilt; a thing of guilt; condemnation

Ashrey : Psalm 145 recited thrice daily

ashrey; ashrei : happy; blessed

asim : barns; granaries

asir : prisoner

asur : prohibited; impermissible

Atah Chonantanu : a passage added to the evening prayer after the Sabbath to note the difference between the Sacred and the non-Sacred

atalef : bat

atarah : crown (pl., atarot)

Ateret HaChayyim : Crown of Life

Ateret HaKavod : Crown of Glory

Athid Lavo : The coming age.

atzamot : bones

atzav : idol; image

Atzeret : Conclusion; used for concluding observance of festival; word derived from “gathering” or “detention,” original meanings. Shemini Atzeret is concluding day of Sukkoth; Atzeret is Talmudic term for Shavuot, conclusion of Omer count. A festive gathering for the conclusion of a festive season, a concluding feast

atzilah : noble birth

atzlanit : sluggards

atzlut : lazy idleness

Aufruf : Calling up of the bridegroom or bridal couple for the Torah blessings on the Shabbat preceding their wedding

av : father (alt. ab)

avva : daddy (alt.abba)

Av : Eleventh month of Jewish year.

Av Beit Din (alt. Bayt, Bet) : Father of the court; judicial president in Talmudic era, and later

Av Harachamim : a prayer for the persecuted communities

Av HaRoeh b’seter : Father Who Sees in secret

av sela : bed rock

Avaddon : destruction; hell; Abbadon

avadim : servants; slaves

avanim : stones

avdut : slavery; bondage

avel : iniquity; gross injustice

avelim : mourners

avelut : mourning

Avelut : third period of mourning; the first year after death

averah : transgression

averos : sins

Avi-khol : Father of all

Avinu : our Father

Avinu Malkenu : Literally: our Father, our King. A prayer of supplication recited on Yom Kippur. A prayer said on the Days of Penitence and fast days.

Aviv : (alt. Abib) Nisan was known as Aviv/Abib prior to Babylonian captivity

avla; avlah : injustice

Avodah (alt. Abodah) : Service; specifically, the sacrificial Temple service as performed by high priest; today, referring to Yom Kippur observance and other synagogue rituals. Chasidic concept of life dedicated to God

avodah zarah : idol worship

avodas : work

avodas hakodesh : work of holiness

avodas kodesh : worship; service

avodot hakodesh : ministries

avon : sin offense

Avot : the Patriarchs; Fathers

Avoteinu : our Fathers

ayah : falcon

Ayin : 16th letter of the Hebrew alef-beit (alphabet)

ayin : eye

ayin horo : evil eye

ayir : young donkey

aza : certain

Azarah pl. Azarot : the Temple Courtyard. Ezrat Nashim : the outer Courtyard in the Sanctuary

Azazel : Meaning unknown; used in reference to the “scapegoat,” the goat sent into the wilderness signifying removal of the nation’s sins. The Talmud thus denotes the mountain on which scapegoat is sent, to carry people’s sins into the wilderness, on Yom Kippur

azarah (pl. azarot) : the Temple courtyard

Azharot : a passage on the commandments in the Torah read on Shavuot

azivah : abandonment


B”H : abbreviation for Baruch HaShem (praise God)

B.C.E. : Before the Common Era (same as B.C. but less offensive to non-Messianic Jewish people)

b’avon : in sin

b’derech hatevah : naturally

B’dikat Chametz : the formal search for leaven before Passover.

b’nei : sons

b’rakhah : blessing, benediction (pl. b’rakhot)

b’ris milah : (alt. b’rit, bris, brit) circumcision

b’rit : (alt. b’ris) covenant, contract

B’rit Chadashah (alt. Hadashah) : Renewed Covenant (erroneously referred “New Testament” which denotes that which replaces something “old”); see Ketuvim Shlichim, which should probably be the preferred term for this collection of writings, as the term B’rit Chadasha specifically refers to the Renewed Covenant itself, and not to the writings of the Shlichim concerning that covenant.

b’seder : in order

b’seter : in secret .

b’shem hazeh : in this name .

b’yirah : with fear

b’yom : (alt. byom) at day

ba’al : husband; master

ba’al gaavah : haughty; proud person

ba’al melitzot : rhetorician; fine talker

Ba’al Shem Tov : Rabbi Yisroel Ba’al Shem Tov; born 18 Elul, 1698 in Okop, Ukraine; died 6 Sivan, 1760; Rebbe in Mezhibuzh; founder of the modern Chassidic movement; main disciples Maggid of Mezritch & R’ Yaakov Yosef of Polonnoye

Ba’al Teshuva : Literally “Master of Repentance.” Used for someone that is newly observant.

ba’al tzavva’a : testator; person who makes the will

ba’alim : husbands

Baal Bayit : master of the house

Baal HaKerem : Owner of the Vineyard

baalei hamum : the maimed

baalei-batim : laymen [lit. householders]

badchan : humorist

badeken : traditional formal veiling of the bride by the groom before the wedding ceremony

baderech : on the road

bahlt : soon

bailus : sovereignty; ownership; dominion

bais : house (alt. beit)

baitel : wallet

bakkashot : petitions

bakosha : petition; request

balailah hazeh : during this night

baleidikung : insult

Bamah : an improvised altar, outside the Sanctuary (pl. Bamot)

bamidbar : in the wilderness

banim : children

bannai chacham : wise builder

bar : (Ar.) son

Bar Kokhba (alt. Kochba) : Leader of a Jewish revolt (132-135) against Hadrian

bar mitzvah : lit. “son of the commandment” or “son of the law” … i.e. has reached his majority; his legal age. Ceremony marking a youngster’s reaching the age of religious majority, traditionally thirteen for boys and twelve for girls; in many congregations, thirteen for girls as well. See bat mitzvah.

barad : hail

barah : created

baraita’ : (Ar.) a statement of law, historical, or aggadic tradition which is attributed to the tannaitic period but which is not contained in the Mishnah

barchu : call upon the congregation to bless God

barech : grace … the part of the Seder when the grace after the meal is recited

barei lev : pure in heart

bari vshalem : safe and sound

bariim : healthy ones

baruch : bless, blessed, blessed is

Baruch Dayan Ha’emet : a blessing of acceptance of God’s judgments

baruch habah : welcome (lit. blessed is the one who comes)

Baruch habah bashem Adonai : Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord

Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo : a phrase of blessing of God’s Name upon hearing it uttered

bas haya`anah : ostrich

basar : body; flesh; fallen human nature

Basar : to announce (glad news) : messenger, preach, publish, show forth, (bear, bring, carry, preach, good, tell good) tidings … Good news (same as gospel)

basar echad : one flesh

basherte : his destined mate

baShomayim : heavenly bodies

bas mitzvah : bat mitzvah

bat : daughter

bat mitzvah : lit. “daughter of the law” or “daughter of the commandment” … i.e. has reached her majority; her legal age. Ceremony marking a youngster’s reaching the age of religious majority, traditionally thirteen for boys and twelve for girls; in many congregations, thirteen for girls as well. See bar mitzvah

bat kol : a voice from heaven; an “echo” of a Divine Voice

batim : households

batlanim : male householders who had leisure to give themselves to regular attendance

batlanim : unemployed or lazy loafers; idlers

bavorn : anticipates

bavust : famous

bayit : house (alt. beit)

bazunder : unrelated and separate

be’einei Hashem : in the eyes of God

be’ichud : united

be’ikvot : in the footsteps

be’ito : “in its season” [Tehillim 1:3]

bechi : weeping

bechirah : divine election; selection; choosing

Bechirim : Chosen Ones

Bechor : Firstborn

bechorah : inheritance

bedavka : deliberately

bederech klal : usually

bedieved : begrudgingly

bedievedike : expedient

bedikah : examination

Bedikat Chametz : Search for leaven before Passover … casting out the leaven

beemes : in truth

beerech : approximately; dacht zich

beetzem : intrinsically

befeirush : explicitly

begadim : clothes

Beha’alotcha : a portion in the Book of Numbers

behechrach : necessarily

Bein Hametzarim : the period between the Seventeenth of Tammuz and the Ninth of Av, “Between the Fences”

beinoni : of median piety (pl. Beinonim)

beit : (alt. beyt, bet, beth) the second letter of the Hebrew alef-beit (alphabet)

beit : (alt. bet, beth, beyt, bayt, bayit) house

Beit Din : “House of Judgment [Law]” Jewish court employing religious and Talmudic law … Rabbinical court; presiding elders over a congregation

Beit HaMikdash : House of Sanctity; synagogue. The sanctuary or Temple in Jerusalem.

Beit haShoevah : The House of the Waterpouring

beit hasohar : prison

beit kevarot : cemetery

Beit Lechem : lit. House of bread; Bethlehem; Birthplace of Yeshua and King David.

beit midrash : houses of study (pl. batey midrashot)

bekavod : suitable

bekeshe : kaftan

bekitzur : briefly; concisely

bekvius : regularly

beleidikt : offended

ben : son

ben Adam : human being (lit. son of Adam; son of man)

ben chayil : son of worthiness

ben chorin : freeman

Ben HaAdam : Mashiach (“The” Son of Man) [Daniel 7:13-14]

ben hanaggar : the carpenter’s son

ben torah : scholar

ben yachid : only son

beni : my son

beni haahuv : beloved son

benoigeia : regarding

bentsh : custom of saying grace after meals

berachah : brachah

Berachot Hashachar : the blessings of awakening recited each morning

Beraichot : a section of Talmudic commentary on benedictions.

bereshis (alt. bereshit) : in the beginning

beriah : creation

berishonah : in the first place

berit (alt. brit, bris, b’ris) : lit. covenant; refers to the covenant between God and Avraham and his descendants (pl. beritot)

berit milah : covenant of circumcision; often referred to simply as b’ris

beriyah : creature

beseder : in order

besere : better

Beshalach : a portion in the Book of Exodus

beshita : as a matter of conviction or principle

beshum oifen : absolutely

besod : in secret

Besuras HaGeulah : the Good News of Redemption

Besuroh Tovoh : Good Tidings of a Joyous Event

bet : (alt. beyt, beit, beth) the second letter of the Hebrew alef-bet (alphabet)

bet : (alt. beit, beth, beyt, bayt, bayit) house

bet din : court of law; see beit din

Bet HaKnesset : House of Assembly; shul; synagogue; shtibel

betulim : virginity

betulot : virgins

betzah : (alt. beytzah) egg, the symbolic hard-boiled and roasted egg on the seder plate; also called Chaggegah or Haggigah; a symbol for the second sacrifice of Passover

betzi’at halechem : breaking of bread; meal

beyt : (alt. beit, bet, beth) the second letter of the Hebrew alef-beyt (alphabet)

beyt : (alt. bet, beit, beth, beyt, bayt, bayit) house

beytzah : (alt. betzah) egg

bi’ur ma’asrot : the disposal of tithes

Bias HaMashiach : Coming of Mashiach; Parousia

bibrit hanissuim : in covenant of marriage

bichlal : entirely

bifraht : particularly

bikkur : examining or investigating

bikkur cholim : (alt. holim) visiting the sick; a pious duty, carried out in the past by Chevra Kadisha

bikkurim : (alt. bikurim) The offering of the first fruit; barley harvest; first fruit

bikoret beshbonot : audit

bima : (alt. bimah) The raised central platform (lectern) in the synagogue from which the Torah is read and from which worship services are usually conducted. The platform is called tevah in Sephardic synagogues. On Succot, it is circled by the community, while holding their lulav. This inevitably results in major “traffic jams” in synagogues.

bimesibba : reclining at tish

binah : understanding

binnuy : construction

Binyamin (Benjamin) : One of Jacob’s (Ya’akov) 12 sons, the youngest. One of the 12 Tribes of Israel descended from Ya’akov’s son. The Name means “son of the right hand”

binyan : building

biradah : trembling

birkat : (alt. berachah) blessing

Birkat HaChodesh : the blessing of the New Moon

Birkat haMazon : benediction over food; grace after meals

Birkat HaMinim : 90 C.E. Decree; the “benediction” of the heretics (Messianics)

bishmi : in my name

bitachon : confident trust

biti : my daughter

bitul Torah : the neglect of the study of the Torah

bizyoinos : humiliation

blailah : at night

bnei ; sons (sg. ben)

bnei basar ; carnally-minded believers

Bnei Chorin : Sons of Freedom; Freedmen

bnei ha-chuppah : wedding invitees

Bnei HaKhofshiyah : Sons of Lady Freedom; the Free Woman

Bo ; a portion in the Book of Exodus

bo’u u’re’u : come and see

bocher (alt. bochur) : bachelor; young man

Boethuseans : A religious party of the first century composed of wealthy and influential members of the priesthood, similar in doctrine with the Sadducees

boged : traitor; betrayer (pl. bogedim)

boh : come

boker : morning

boneh : builder

Boneh Yerushalayim : the blessing over the rebuilding of Jerusalem

Booths, Feast of : In Hebrew, Succoth, the fifteenth day of the seventh month of the Jewish calendar; a seven-day holiday when Israel was to dwell in booths to commemorate the wilderness wanderings.

Bore Nefashot : a short blessing after the eating of food that does not require Birkat Hamazon

Bore Peri Ha’etz : the blessing over fruit of the tree

borur : obvious

brachah : (alt. brakah, berachah) blessing … a prayer of thanksgiving that always begins, “Baruch etah, Adonai Elohaynu, Melech HaOlam” (“Blessed art Thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe.”) Literally, “a blessing” or “benediction.” (pl. berachot; brachot, birchot)

Breath of Every Living Thing, The : The closing hymn of the Passover seder.

bren : fervor; hitlahavut

Bri’at HaOlam : the creation of the world

bria chadasha : a new being

briah : creation

bris milah : (alt. b;’ris, b;rit, brit) circumcision

brit : covenant

bubbemeises : (Yid.) old wives tales

bukki : expert; meivin

bushah : shame

buttel : cancelled out

byirah : (alt. b’yirah) with fear

byom : (alt. b’yom) at day


C.E. : Common Era (same as A.D. but much less offensive to non-Messianic Jewish people)

cantor : one who leads the chanting [canting, singing] of prayers in the synagogue services.

cerubim : (alt. ceruvim) an order of angelic being; the Cherubim in the Sanctuary (sg. cherub)

chachah : reproof

chacham : wise man (pl. chachamim)

chadash : new wine

chadashot : new things

chafetz : good pleasure

chag : festival

Chag Habikkurim : (alt. Habikurim) Festival of the First Fruits; another name for Shavuot

Chag Haggeulah : Festival of Redemption

Chag HaKatzir : Festival of Ingathering or Harvest

Chag Sameach : joyous holiday; the greeting used on the festivals

chai : alive (or life); when Jews drink a toast, they wish each other “L’chayim” (to life)

chaim : (alt. chayyim) life; the plural ending indicates an increase or multiplication, thus “very life” or “abundant life”

chaiyal : soldier (pl. chaiyalim)

chal : placed under obligation

chalav : milk

chalil : flute

chalitzah : This Biblical ceremony, to absolve a man of marrying his childless brother’s widow, means “removal.” The widow removes his shoe and publicly spits upon the recalcitrant.

challah (alt. chalah) : Egg bread eaten on Shabbat and festivals; the challah used on Rosh haShanah is round, often containing raisins, symbolizing a sweet year, distinguishing it from the Shabbat challah that is braided … the kohen’s share in the dough … White braided Sabbath bread; name of the dough tithed from bread baking (pl. chalot)

chalutzim : pioneers

chamdanut : covetousness greed

chamesh : five

chamesh elafim : five thousand

chametz : (alt. chometz) (lit. sour) any fermented product of grain, all leavening agents; hence, that which makes “sour” … leavening, yeast, baking powder; mixes with a leavening agent, bread and bread crumbs; food prepared with leaven, by extension referring to all foods and utensils forbidden on Passover … leavened bread and anything made with wheat, rye, barley, oats, or spelt, which has not been supervised to ensure that it has not leavened; refers to prohibited foods during Pesach

chamor : donkey

chamot : shviger; mother-in-law

chaninah : mercy

Chanukat Habayit : dedication of the home; the ceremony affixing the mezuzah

Chanukiah : eight-branched candelabrum, with a place for a ninth candle (shamash) that light the others, especially designed for Chanukkah

Chanukkah : (Alt. Hanukah, Hanukkah, Chanukah) Dedication; name of the winter holiday commemorating the Maccabean victory over the Syrians in 165 B.C.E. and the rededication of the Temple

chap : grasp mentally; grab

charedi : orthodox

charon af HaShem : burning wrath or anger of God

charoset : (alt. charoset) a mixture of fruits (usually apples), nuts, cinnamon, and wine; one of the symbolic Passover foods on the seder plate. Its color and consistency are reminders of the bricks and mortar used by the Israelite slaves

Chas v’shalom : (alt. Chas veshalom) God forbid!

chashadot merusha’im : evil suspicions

chashivut : importance; prominence

Chassidic : pertaining to the Chasidim

Chasidim : Ultra-Orthodox followers of the eighteenth-century leader, Rabbi Israel, the Ba’al Shem Tov. Some main features of Chassidic thought, or Chassidism are emphasis on:

  • Sincerity, fervour
  • Prayer
  • Joy and spontaneity
  • Humility
  • Connection to the Tzadik, the Rebbe (known as ADMO”R, acronymfor Adoneinu, Moreinu veRabeinu — Our Master, OurTeacher and Our Rabbi)
  • Introduction of Kabbalistic concepts to the masses

Some of the common customs of the Chassidim are:

  • Specific clothing - Spodek, Shtreimel, long coats, gartel
  • Eating with the Rebbe - Tisch, Farbrengen
  • Order of prayer of Rav Yitzchak Luriah (Ari Zal)
  • Later prayer times - following preparations

Chasidus : The Chassidic movement, was founded by R. Yisrael Ba’al Shem Tov (1700 - 1760) in the early 18th Century and grew to one of the great movements of mainstream Judaism to this day. It grew in the regions of Galicia, the Ukraine and Podolia.

chassidus : piety

chassuna : wedding

chatan : (alt. chosson) bridegroom

Chatan Bereshit : (lit. Bridegroom of Genesis) the man called to recite or chant the blessings over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah

Chatan Torah : (lit. Bridegroom of the Torah) the man called to recite or chant the blessings over the final section of the Torah on Simchat Torah

chatat : (alt. hataat, chattat) sin offering in the Temple (2 Chron 5:21)

chatetz : good pleasure of his will

chatoteinu : our sins

chatsot halailah; chatzot halailah : midnight

chattaim : sins

chattat : (alt, chatat) sin offering; sin-atoning sacrifice;

chattoteynu : our sins

chaver leneshek : comrade-in-arms

chavrusashaft : association

chavurah : company; fellowship; society; those who partake of the Paschal lamb together

chavurah (alt. chaburah, havra’ah) : a group of “subscribers” convened for the purpose of offering the Pesach Sacrifice and eating of its meat … Informal group, which meets together for Jewish study and celebration (pl. chavurot)

Chayyah : Beast; Anti-Mashiach; Antichrist

chayyah : living, animal, beast (pl. chayyot)

chayyei menuchah : life of rest

chayyeinu : our life

chayyim : (alt. chaim) life

chazakim : strong ones

chazan : (alt. chazzan, hazzan, hazan) the cantor, the leader in prayer

chazan hakkeneset : synagogue employee

Chazarat Hashatz : repetition of the amidah prayer by the cantor aloud after it was recited by the congregants

Chazereth —bitter root, usually horseradish, on the Seder plate

chazir : swine (pl. chazirim)

chazon : vision; revelation; prophecy

chazora : review

cheder : room or chamber … old-fashioned term for Hebrew school

chedvah : rejoicing

chefetz : desire

chelek : allotted portion

chen v’chesed : favor and mercy; lovingkindness

chepping : annoying

cherem : ban of destruction

cherish : a deaf person (pl. chereshim)

cheresh-illem : deaf and mute

cherev : sword

cherut : freedom

chesed : free; unmerited favor or grace

cheshbon : plan; account; bill

Cheshvan (Bul) : second month of Jewish year

chet : (lit. missing the mark) one of the Hebrew terms translated “sin” … equivalent to Gk. hamartia

chevlei leydah : pangs of childbirth

Chevlei Mashiach : birthpangs of Mashiach

Chevrah Kadisha : group of people entrusted with the mitzvah of preparing a body for burial

chikiah : wait

Chillul Hashem gidduf : desecration of the Name blasphemy

chiloni : secular

chiyuv : duty

chizzuk : strengthening

chochmah : wisdom

chodashim : moons

chodesh : month

choiv : debt

chok : decree; law

chokmah : wisdom (in a good sense) : skillful, wisdom, wisely, wit

chol : non-sacred, common

Chol Hamoed : ordinary part of the festival—days in the middle of Pesach or Sukkot when work is allowed … weekdays of the Festival

choleh : sick one

cholent : a stew usually made from potatoes, beans and meat. The recipe varies from community to community. Calcutta “chamin” has rice, curry and chicken. German cholent has beans, dumpling and beef. Hungarians add whole eggs etc. It is eaten on Shabbat, and is placed on the fire on Friday afternoon. It cooks over Shabbat, and by lunchtime is ready to eat.

cholim : sick persons

cholom : dream

chomed : covetous

chomer haDin : rigor of the Law

choref : winter

chori af : burning wrath

chori afhaba : the wrath to come

chorim : freedmen

choshech : darkness

chosson : (alt. chatan) bridegroom

chotam : seal

chote’im : sinners

chotsh : at least

chovah musarit : moral duty

chozek : encouragement strength

Chukat : a portion in the Book of Numbers

chukim : laws

Chumash : one of the Five Books of the Torah (pl. Chumashim)

chumra : legalism

chupah : (alt. chuppah, huppah) canopy under which pair stand at wedding ceremony, symbol of home to be established; represents the honeymoon chamber

churban : destruction

chutzpah : nerve

cohan : (alt. cohen, kohen) priest

Cohen : (alt. cohan, kohen) Priest … a descendant Moishe’s brother Aharon, the first High Priest (Cohen Gadol) of the Jewish people. The Cohen is always called up first to the Torah reading. (pl. Cohenim, alt. Cohanim, Kohanim, Kohenim)

Cohen Gadol : High Priest. The Cohen Gadol, wore a special turban, tunic and breast plate amongst other things. (pl. Cohenim Gedolim)

Cohen haGadol : (alt. Kohen haGadol, Cohen Gadol, Kohen Gadol) The High Priest

confirmation : ceremony marking the completion of the religious school course of study, often held on Shavuot

consecration : ceremony marking the beginning of a child’s formal Jewish education, often held on Simchat Torah


D’varim : (alt. Dvarim) Deuteronomy

da’as : (alt. da’ath) knowledge, cunning, wittingly

daah : kite

dag : fish (pl. dagim)

dahm : blood

daiyagim : fishermen

darash : to tread or frequent; usually to follow (for pursuit or search); by implication to seek or ask; specifically to worship — care for, diligently inquire, make inquisition, question, require, search, seek for, seek out

darom : south

darshan : preacher (pl. darshanim) … see also maggid

dati : religious

daven : (Yid.) pray

daverah : disobedience to the commandment

davka : approximately

Dayan : Judge of a Rabbinical Court; religious judges (pl. dayanim)

Dayenu : Hebrew title of a Passover seder song meaning, “It Would Have Been Enough for Us.”

deagot : worries; anxieties

defilement : ritual impurity

dehainu : being

delet : door (pl. delatot)

demut : image, likeness, icon

derashot : sermons

derech : guide, way, path, journey, custom

Derech Hashem : Way of the Lord; name given to Messianic Orthodox Judaism in the Apostolic Writings

dermohn : made mention

deror : freedom [Vayikra 25:10]

Devar Torah : Literally: a word of Torah; follows the Torah reading in a worship service, taking the form of a sermon, talk, explication, story, discussion, or program

devash : wild honey

deveykus : attachment to God

Diaspora : Dispersion of the Jewish people from Israel. Dispersion of the houses of Judah and Ephraim from Israel. Jewish communities outside of Israel.

Dibre HaYamin : the events of the days

dibur : saying; utterance

dimyon : analogy

din : Halachah law, judgment (pl. dinim)

divrei hanevu’ah : words of prophecy

doiche : rejecting or setting aside

dor : generation (pl. dorot)

dov : bear

drakhim : ways

drash : (alt. drasha; drashah) homiletic interpretation, sermon (see midrash)

drishat shalom : kind regards; greetings

duchan : the stand in front of the ark in the synagogue from which the cohenim bless the congregation

dukifat : Hoopoe Upupa epops, a colorful bird that is found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive “crown” of feathers

dvar : word

dvar hora’ah : word of teaching

dvar malchut : decree

dvar nevuah : word of prophecy

dvarashmah : a thing of guilt; condemnation

dvarim : words

Dvarim : (alt. D’varim) Deuteronomy


echad : “one” : denotes a “compound unity” that is found, for example, in one bunch of grapes, one herd or flock of animals, a company or organization, one congregation of numerous individuals. In marriage, a man and a woman become echad.

ed : mist

edei re’iyah : eyewitnesses

eder : flock

Eder Katan : Little Flock

edim : witnesses

edut : testimony (pl. eduyot)

edut sheker : false testimony of false witnesses

efsher : perhaps

egel : calf

Eglah Arufah : “the heifer-of-the-broken-neck” prescribed in case of an unsolved murder

ehrliche Yid : a truly pious Jew

eidel : gentle; courteous

eidus : witness of testimony; commendation

eigene : personal

Ein Kelohenu : “There is no simile of our Lord …” — a passage recited after the morning prayer

ein ketz : without end

eisek : business

eish : fire

Eish Gehinnom : Fire of Hell

eish ketanah : small fire

Eish Olam : Eternal Fire

eishes chayil : virtuous woman

eivot : enmities

El Erech Apaim : a prayer mentioning the thirteen Divine Attributes

El Malei Rachamim : Literally: God, full of compassion; memorial prayer

El Shaddai : God Almighty

elef shanim : a thousand years

elil : idol (pl., elilim)

Eloheinu : (alt. Elohinu or Elohenu) Our God

Elohim : God when referring to HaShem; also gods, judges (lit. mighty ones) : plural in form, it expresses the “compound unity” of God

Elokai Netzor : a passage of personal requests recited upon the conclusions of the silent prayer

Elul : Twelfth month of Jewish year … prior to Rosh Hashannah

em : mother

emes (alt., emet): truth

Emes HaShem : the Truth of God

emesdik : genuinely

emet (alt., emes): truth

Emor : a portion in the Book of Leviticus

emunah : faith

enosh : man

epikomios : Greek for after-dinner entertainment; that which comes after; basis for the word aphikomen

episkopos : (Gk.) a superintendent, i.e. officer in general charge of a congregation or group of congregations : used interchangeably in the Ketuvim Schliachim with the titles bishop, overseer, elder, and pastor

episunagoge : (Gk.) a complete collection; specifically a meeting for worship : assembling (gathering) together

eppis : for some reason

eravon : pledge

ereb : (alt. erev) dusk, night, evening; the day before, the eve of

eres : poison; venom

Eretz Mitzrayim : Land of Egypt

Eretz Yisra’el : The Land of Israel

eretz zarah : a strange land

erev : (alt. ereb) dusk, night, evening; the day before, the eve of

erlichkeit : sincerety

ershtins : first of all

erusin : betrothal; engagement; in ancient times, the formal engagement ceremony before marriage

eruv : an act of legal “mixing”, the means of “mixing”; see eruv chatzerot and eruv tavshilin

eruv : a rope or wire that is suspended on poles around a city to allow Jews to carry on the Sabbath. Carrying objects from private to public property and public to private property as well as in public property is forbidden by Torah law on the Shabbat. In certain situations, where the city is not Biblically considered public property, there is a Rabbinic prohibition to carry, unless an eruv is erected around the city. Burdens may be carried freely within the eruv on Shabbat.

eruv chatzerot : an act of legal “mixing” to enable transferring from one “private domain” to another on Sabbath

eruv tavshilin : an act of “mixing” the cooked food prepared for a festival and the Sabbath next to it in order to enable cooking and baking on the festival for the Sabbath

eser : ten

etmol : yesterday

etrog : citron fruit; with the lulav, it is the symbol of Sukkot … citron fruit taken as one of the Four Species on the Feast of Tabernacles

etz : tree, stick (pl, etzim)

etz echad : one stick

Etz HaChayyim : the Tree of Life

etz teenah : fig tree

etza : advice; wisdom

etzem : actual

eusebes : (Gk.) well-reverent, i.e. pious : devout, Godly

evar : (alt. ever) member, limb (pl. evarim)

evar katon : small member

eved : house slave; servant

even : stone

Even Shetiyah : the Foundation Stone in the Sanctuary; a one of the titles of Mashiach

evus : animal feeding trough

Exodus Rabbah : A section of Talmudic commentary on the book of Exodus.

eynayeem : eyes

eyvah : enmity

ezer : help

ezrah : aid

ezrat nashim : (alt. azarah) the outer courtyard in the Sanctuary


farbissener : mean

farbrengen : inspirational gathering where the Rebbe’s shirayim or leftovers are of great interest

fargolgung : persecution

farnumen : preoccupied

farnumen : set aside

farshteit zich : of course

Feasts of YHWH : The seven holidays that God commanded Israel to observe in Leviticus 23 (frequently referred to as “Feasts of Israel” by Goyim)

fehlt : the lacking

fergin : graciously grant

feste : excellent

fier zich : comport oneself

Firstfruits : A time of offering the first of the grain harvest to the Lord, observed on the second day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread

fleishig : (Yid.) foods derived from meat or meat products

foroisgeier : (Yid.) forerunner

fort : nevertheless

frai : irreligious

frum : (Yid.) observant Jew


ga’avah : conceit; haughtiness; arrogance; pride

ga’avtanim : proud boasters

Gaayonim : the Haughty ones

Gabai : the leader of the Synagogue (pl. Gaba’im)

gadlus : with remarkable superiority

gadol : great

gahn : (alt. gan) garden

Galatianism : An early heresy that insisted that in order to become part of primitive Messianic Judaism, non-Jews must be circumcised and obey the whole Torah, including the added rabbinical traditions. Today, the term is also used of the belief that the whole Torah must be obeyed in order to either gain salvation or to be identified with modern Messianic Judaism. A common error within much of the modern Messianic movement. Also used disparagingly of those who expect others to follow their own personal lists of what’s right and what’s wrong. (see also Judaize)

Galus : Exile (“Galus mentality” is docile and submissive)

Gamaliel (alt. Gamliel) : a celebrated rabbi of the early part of the first century, the teacher of Shliach Sha’ul (the Apostle Paul)

Gan Eden : The Garden of Eden … paradise

ganav : thief (pl. ganavim)

ganav balailah : thief in the night

gantz : exceedingly

gantze nachon : entirely correct

Gaon : (Excellency) Reverential title of heads of Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita, Babylonia. Rabbi Elijah of Wilna was accorded that title in the eighteenth century … the head of a Torah Center in Babylonia in the post-Talmudic era (pl. Ge’onim)

gargeer hakhitah : grain of wheat

gartel : belt

geder : classification

gedolah : great (pl. gedolim)

Gedolim : Great Ones; Great (Rabbinic) Leaders

gedulah : greatness

gefeirlich : horribly

gefilte fish : (Yid.) fish balls or cakes made of ground fish, eggs, matzo meal, onions, and spices

Gehinnom : (alt. Gehinom) lit. Valley of Hinnom, the Jerusalem city dump where the  fires from the burning refuse were never extinguished; Yeshua used this place as a type or picture when teaching of the place of punishment of the unregenerate in the afterlife … Hell

Gelili : inhabitant of the Galil (Galilee)

gelt : (Yid.) money; traditionally given as a Hanukah gift and used for the dreidel game

Gemar Chatimah Tovah : lit. “May the final sealing be good” … traditional greeting from the end of Rosh haShanah through Yom Kippur

Gemara : collection of legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis of the third through the fifth centuries, edited about 500 CE; together with the Mishnah forms the Talmud

Gematria : finding meanings in the numerical value of Hebrew letters and words; Jewish numerology

gemul tzodek : just retribution

genevot : thefts

Gentile : of or pertaining to any people who are not Jewish

ger : (alt. gioret ) properly, a guest; by implication, a foreigner : alien, sojourner, stranger : the masculine and feminine forms of the Hebrew term for convert or proselyte (pl. gerim)

Ger Sheker : proselyte who declares full conversion for ulterior motives

Ger Toshav : proselyte who accepts monotheism and the Noahide laws, and who receives courtesies and privileges

Ger Tzedek : full convert of true conviction, in all respects to be considered a Jew

gerim : proselytes (sg. ger)

gerush shedim : exorcism

gerusha : divorcee

Gerut : the process of conversion

geshem : rain

geshmak : pleasure

geshrai : a scream

get : religious divorce; the word is used to refer to a Jewish bill of divorcement

geter iska : “transaction permit” allowing a money lender to take interest by making him a partner of the borrower sharing his profits

geulah : redemption

gevaltike : (Yid.) extraordinary

gever : male

geviya (alt. geviyah) : corpse

gevurah : miraculous power

gevurot : mighty deeds

Gevurot Geshamim : “the Power of Rain”, a Praise to God for the revelation of His powers in Nature, added to the silent prayer

gezar din : verdict

gezel : robbery

Gezerah : laws or traditions added by the Pharisees as “fences” around the existing Law in an attempt to prevent it from being broken. When Yeshua confronted the Pharisees, is was almost always over their Gezerah

gibbor : strong man

gidduf : blasphemy

giddufim : revilements

gilui arayot : sexual immorality

giyyur : proselytization

gneyvot : thefts

Go’el : Redeemer

Go’el Yisrael : “The Redeemer of Israel”, one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah prayer

God (some names of) : Adonai, Elohim, El Shaddai, YHVH, HaKadosh Baruch Hu, Ribono shel Olam, Harachaman, Avinu Shebashamayim

gofrit : sulfur

goilomim (alt. goilem) : foolish people

goirem : driving force

goires : listen to

golus : exile

gonvei nefesh : kidnapper; slave dealers

gor : very

Goy : nation, foreigner, stranger, Gentile, non-Jew (pl. Goyim)

grahda : as a matter of fact; in reality

Great Hallel, The : Hebrew designation for Psalm 136 (see Hallel)

grogger : (alt. greegers, graggers) noisemaker used to drown out Haman’s name during the reading of the Megillah on Purim

groise : eminent

guddal : being brought up

gufaniyut : corporeality; having a physical body

gufot : bodies

Gulgolta : a hill outside Yerushalayim called “the Skull” on which Yeshua was crucified. Sometimes referred to as Calvary. Some believe this to be Mt. Moriah, the site of Avraham’s offering of Yitz’chak

gzeira : authoritative command


ha : the definite article “the” (Hebrew and Aramaic do not use the indefinite articles “a” or “an”.) When transliterating from Hebrew or Aramaic into English there are several forms commonly used:

  1. the article is added to the beginning of the word with no other indication: haaretz
  2. the article is added to the beginning of the word, and the word is capitalized: haAretz
  3. the article is added to the beginning of the word, and both words are capitalized: HaAretz
  4. the article is added to the beginning of the word, and a hyphen is inserted to indicate a “breath stop”: ha-aretz
  5. the article is added to the beginning of the word, and an apostrophe is inserted to indicate a “breath stop”: ha’aretz

haAcharon : the last

haAlmavet : immortal

haAra : insight

haAretz : the earth

haAretz haHavtacha : the Promised Land

haAretz harishonah : the first earth

haAryeh : the Lion

haAsarah : the Ten

haAv : the Father

haAzinu, the Song of : a portion of Deuteronomy

habah b’basar : has come in bodily flesh

haBatzek : the dough (see Pesach Haggadah)

haBechor : the firstborn

haBen : the Son

haBo’re : the Creator

haBri’ah : the Creation

haChayyot : the living beings

hachitzon : the outer one

hachnosas orchim : hospitality

hachrazah : proclamation; kyrygma; preaching

hadar : majesty; splendor

hadas : a myrtle branch taken as one of the four species during Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles)

hadlakah : bonfire

hadom : footstool

hador hazeh : this generation

HaEmes (alt. HaEmet): the Truth

HaEmes HaShem : Truth of God

Haftorah— (alt. Haftarah) weekly readings from the Nevi’im (Prophets), selected by sages during the time when Torah reading was forbidden, read or chanted after the weekly Torah portion during the synagogue service on Sabbath and holidays. Nevi’im reading selected to remind one of the Torah reading (pl. Haftarot) : the Feast of Weeks. The official beginning of the summer harvest season (wheat crop specifically). Shavuot

Hag haMatzah : Feast of Unleavened Bread

haGadol : The great

hagah : murmur (in either pleasure or anger); by implication, to ponder, imagine, meditate, mourn, mutter, roar, speak, study, talk, utter

Hagbah : the lifting of the Torah scroll and displaying it to the congregation. On Simchat Torah, when we celebrate finishing and beginning the Torah, we also have the most difficult Hagbah. The Torah is a scroll and therefore when it is finished or started all the weight is on one side.

Hagbalah : Days of Abstinence

haGedulah : greatness

haGefen : fruit of the vine

haGevurah : might

Haggadah : (alt. Hagadah, Agada, Agadah, Aggadah) “the telling.” Named from the Lord’s command “tell your son/show your son” in Shemot/Exodus 13:8. A book which relates the Passover story through readings, songs, prayers, foods, in the traditional prescribed order (seder) around the meal. A general Hebrew term for utterance, applied specifically to the nonlegal portion of rabbinic literature. It is also the title of the text recited at the festive meal (seder) on the first two nights of Passover … Literally: telling; book in which the Passover story is retold and the seder ritual is outlined … the tale of the Exodus from Egypt as read at the Seder Night (pl. Haggadot) (adjective, Haggadic)

Haggadali —the book that sets forth and explains the seder service

haggigah : (alt. hagigah, chagigah, chaggigah) the festival offering; the other sacrifices offered in the Temple in addition to the Paschal lamb; . a sacrifice offered on the eve of Pilgrim Festivals

Hagomel : a blessing of thanksgiving for deliverance from perils

ha’Ir : the City

haKadosh : the Holy One

haKadosh Baruch Hu : the Holy One, Blessed Be He

Hakafah —carrying of the Torah scrolls in a procession around the sanctuary … the circling of the Altar in the Sanctuary or the Bimah in the Synagogue (pl. Hakafot)

hakarat todah : gratitude

hakehillot : the congregations

haKeru’im : the summoned/called ones (equivalent to Gr. ecclesia)

haKetz : the End

hakhchashah : denial

Hak-heyl : assemble-ceremony of reading parts of Torah every seventh Sukkot

hakhnasah : income

halakah : (alt. halakhah, halachah, chalakah) the “walk” or way one goes; the word for Jewish law, or for the legal and regulatory portions of Torah and of the Talmud, and of all Jewish lore

Halakah Lemoshe Misinai : (alt. Halachah, Chalakah) an oral Law supposedly given to Moshe on Sinai and not written explicitly in the Torah

halakhic : of or related to halakhah

Hallel : (alt. Halel) praise, a prayer of praise : special psalms of praise recited or sung on the festivals … specifically the passages contained in Tehilliim (Psalms) 113-118 (see Great Hallel)

hama’amin : the believer

HaMabbul : the Flood

haMakkot : the plagues

Hamantashen : filled three-cornered pastries supposed to represent Haman’s hat, traditionally eaten on Purim

haMat‘eh : the Deceiving One

haMavdil : the blessing of Havdalah

haMechokak : Law-Giver

haMelech : the King

haMesim : the Dead

HaMotzi : blessing recited or chanted over bread on Shabbat or festivals: “Barukh atah Adonai Elohaynu melekh haOlam, haMotzi lechem min haAretz. (Amein) Blessed are You, Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who brings forth bread from the earth. (Amen)”

hanevuah : the prophecy

hanivzim : the despised

HaNogah : of Brightness/Venus

Hanukah : (alt. Chanukah) dedication; name of the winter holiday commemorating the Maccabean victory over the Syrians in 165 BCE

haptomai : to attach oneself to, i.e. to touch (in many implied relations)

har : mountain

hara’ah : the evil

hara’im : evil deeds

haRah : the Evil one

haReshit : the Beginning

hareve’it (alt. harevi’i) : the fourth

harishon (alt. harishonah) : the first

harpazo : (Gk.) to seize (in various applications), catch (away or up), pluck, pull, take (by force)

harsha’ah : condemnation as guilty

hartzige : heartfelt

hasagos : aspiration

haSatan : The Adversary, Satan, the Evil One, the Devil

haschala : start

HaShem : “The Name” : respectfully refers to the ineffable Name of the Most High : YHVH / YHVH : the Tetragramaton : “Yod, Hey, Vav, Hey” (hvhy)

HaShemurim : the Guarded ones

hasheni (alt. hasheniyah) : the second; second reading or reader of the weekly Scripture portion

Hashkafa : Literally “View.” Typically Judaism’s philosophical viewpoint on any particular topic.

hashlishi : (alt, hashlishit) the third; third reading or reader of the weekly Scripture portion

haskama : approval

hataat : (alt. chatat) the sin offering in Temple

hatachlit : the ultimate; last reading or reader of the weekly Scripture portion

hatafah : preaching

Hatafat Dam Berit : Taking a single drop of blood from the penis as a sign of the covenant, necessary in the conversion of an adult male already circumcised

Hatarat Nedarim : the repeal of vows

HaTikva : the hope; the Israeli National Anthem

haTov : the good

haTov Vehametive : the fourth blessing of Birkat haMazon : “He Who is good and bestows goodness..”

hattohar : moral purity

haummim : the peoples

havamina : assumption

havdalah : lit. separation; ceremony that marks the end of the Sabbath and the beginning of the week … the blessing over wine to mark the difference between the Sabbath and the weekdays

havtachah : promise

haYom : today

Hayom Harat Olam : verses recited during the Rosh haShanah mussaf prayer

hazan : (alt. hazzan, chazzan, chazan) the cantor, the leader in prayer

Hechag : (lit. the holiday) one of the names for Sukkot

Hechal : Hall of the Sanctuary

heimishe mekom linah : homey guest room; lodging place

hemshech : remaining part

heretic : one whose beliefs do not accord with those of the established religion to which he claims adherence; compare apostate

Hester Panim : the withdrawal of Divine Favor

heter : permission, permit

hevel : futility; vanity; emptiness; worthlessness

hezber : explanation

High Holy Days : A ten day period from Rosh haShanah to Yom Kippur

Hillel : The most prominent Jewish teacher of the first century (30 BCE : 10 CE), thought to be Gamaliel’s grandfather.

hilula : a celebration of memorial

hinei : behold; look!

hinnazrut : self-denial

hisgalus : revelation; unveiling

hishtaltut : domination; taking control

hispailus : overwhelming awe

histalkus : passing; the death of the Mashiach in the midst of his Redemptive Mission or the analogy of Moshe dying before he crosses into the Promised Land; a fundamental doctrine of Messianic Orthodox Judaism

hitammelut : bodily exercise or training

hitarevut : meddlesomeness

hitbagrut : maturity

hitbodedut : seclusion; aloneness

hitkaddeshut : (alt. hitchaddeshut) purification

hitkhabrut : joining; adhesion; fellowship

hitkhadshut : regeneration; renewal

hitlahavut : enthusiasm; fervor

hitnahagut : conduct

hitnahagut hatovah : good conduct

hitstaddekut : apologetic defense

hivvased haOlam : the establishing of the world

hivvased tevel : foundation of the world

hod : honor

hoda’ah : confession; admission

hodayah : thanksgiving

holelut : carousing

Holy of Holies : most Holy inner part of the Sanctuary where the Ark of the Covenant and the visible presence of HaShem resided

homiletic : the art of preaching or public persuasion

hona’ah : swindling

hora’ah : instruction

Horeb : Another name for Mount Sinai, where God gave Israel His Torah

horim : parents

horiva over : analyzing

Hoshana Rabbah : (alt. Hoshanah Raba) the last Great Day of the Feast of Tabernacles. The day of the water drawing ceremony.

Hoshanah : (alt, Hosheanah, Hoshiah-na) chant of “Save us, Lord” or “please save” said while carrying Torah in procession

huledet : birth

hungerik : hungry

huppah : (alt. chupah, chuppah,) canopy under which pair stand at wedding ceremony, symbol of home to be established; represents the honeymoon chamber

hyssop : a plant (perhaps the caper, Capparis spirwsa) whose twigs were used in ceremonial sprinkling.


idud : encouragement

iggeret : letter (pl. iggrot)

ikar : farmer

ikarim : essentials

illem : mute

Im Yirtze Hashem : God willing. lit. if God will want

imahot : mothers

immanu : with us

Immanuel : God with us; a title of HaMashiach

imun : training

innuyim : sufferings

intifadah : uprising

inyan : topic

ir : city

ish evyon : poor man; pauper

ish hacholek : a man of division; a divisive man

Ish HaMufkarut : The Man of Lawlessness : the Anti-Messiah

ish of emes : (alt. emet) man of truth

ish riv : opponent in a lawsuit

ish sefatayim : the eloquent speaker

ish tov : good man

isha : woman; wife

isha chotet : a woman of sin

ishshur : approval

Ishtar : Fertility goddess represented by different names in numerous pagan religions; “the queen of heaven” whose son dies and comes back to life in Satanic counterfeit of Yeshua’s resurrection. Source of the Roman Catholic festival of “Easter” which has become part of traditional, though non-Biblical, Christian vocabulary.

Isru Chag : the day following a festival

isser : proscription in the Torah

Itro : Jethro, a portion in the Book of Exodus

ittim : times

itztzavim : idols; images; tzelamim

ivrim : blind people

ivvelet : foolishness

ivver : blind man

IY’H : Abbreviation for “Im Yirtze Hashem” (which see)

Iyar (Zif) : Eighth month of Jewish year

iyumim : threats

iyun : investigative research

izzim : goats


Jubilee : Every fiftieth year, land lies fallow and land ownership is totally redistributed into equal family shares

Judaize : To bring non-Jews to accept the obligations of rabbinical tradition. See Galatianism.


K’arah : Passover seder dish

k’li : vessel (pl. k’lei)

k’riah : call

K’tiv : the traditional spelling of words in the Torah

K’tuvim : the books of the Bible known as the Writings

ka’as : anger

ka‘at : pelican

kabbalah : oral tradition

Kabbalat Ol Mitzvot : Literally: the acceptance of the yoke of the commandments; a convert’s agreement to lead a Jewish life

kabbalat panim : welcome

Kabbalat Shabbat : Psalms, readings and songs welcoming the Sabbath; the introductory portion of the Sabbath eve service

kabod (alt. kabowd, kavod) : weight; but only figuratively in a good sense, splendor or copiousness : glorious, glory, honor)

kabtzen : beggar

kaddachat : fever

Kaddish (alt. Kadish) : Prayer praising God. This prayer is chanted at several points in a service. In addition, it is recited at least once at each service in memory of those who have died … Prayer of sanctification of God’s name

kadosh : holy

kadoshim : holy ones

kaftan : coat

kahal : assembly

Kal Hamira : An ancient Hebrew prayer spoken at the ritual cleansing of leaven.

Kalat Bereshit : Literally, bride of Genesis; the woman called to recite or chant the blessings over the first section of the Torah on Simchat Torah

kallah : (alt. kalah) bride … conclave or retreat (pl. kallot)

kamtzan : miser

kana’ut : (alt. kanous) zeal

kannai : zealot

kanous : (alt. kana’ut) zeal

Kaparah : expiation … ceremony of transferring sinfulness to a scapegoat just before Yom Kippur (pl. Kaparot, Kapparot)

Kaporet : the covering over the Holy Ark in the Sanctuary

kapparah : place or kapporet medium of wrath-propitiating blood atonement sacrifice

kaptzen : poor person

kar : cold

Karath : to cut (off, down or asunder); by implication to destroy or consume; specifically to covenant (i.e. make an alliance or bargain, originally by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces) : be chewed, covenant, cut (down or off), destroy, fail, feller, be freed, hew down, make a league (covenant), lose, perish, utterly, want … (alt. Karet) : “Being cut off” from the people; Biblical punishment which might become capital or consist of early natural death

karnayim : horns

karoz : herald

karpas : A green herb like parsley or a green vegetable such as celery or watercress, symbolizing spring; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate

kashefanut : sorcery; witchcraft

kashes : questions

kashrut : Jewish dietary laws (see kosher)

kat : sect

katatome : (Gk.) a cutting down (off), i.e. mutilation (ironically) : concision

katon : least

katsir : (alt. Katzir ) harvest

katuv : it is written

kavanah : lit. intentionality; referring to the spiritual attitude with which we approach worship

kavanat halev : the inner-directedness of the heart

kavod : glory

kavvanah : heartfelt direction; intention

kavvanah ra’ah : malice

kayits : summer

ke’arot : bowls

kedushah : (holiness) When the reader or cantor repeats the Amidah (standing prayer), the congregation rises for this antiphonal chant of a doxology from Bible verses proclaiming oneness and sanctity of the Lord … prayer of sanctification of God’s Name added to the third benediction of the amidah prayer

kedushah : holiness; sanctity

Kedushat Hayom : the benediction concerning the “sanctity of the day” included in the amidah prayers on Sabbaths and Festivals

kefirah : heresy; denial

kehillah : congregation

kehunah : priesthood

Kehunah, Kehunah Gedolah : Priesthood in the Sanctuary, High Priesthood

keilim : faculties

kelalah : curse

kelevim : dogs

keli kodesh : holy vessel; minister

keli nivchar : chosen vessel

ken : yes

Ken ayin hara : (Yid., Kinna hurra) lit. “may there be no evil eye”

keneged : in opposition

kenut : sincerity

kerem : vineyard

Keren Yeshuah : Horn of Salvation

keriah : ritual tearing of a garment or a symbolic black ribbon as an expression of grief in conjunction with a death

kes : throne

keseder : constantly

kesher : conspiracy; plot

keshet be’anan : rainbow; Bereshit (Genesis) 9:16

keshi : stubbornness; hardness

kesil : fool (pl. kesilim)

kesut rosh : head covering

keta : section

ketan : below the age of Bar Mitzvah (pl. ketanim)

ketanim : small ones

keter : crown

Ketiva vachatima tovah : wishes of “good inscription” on Rosh haShanah (May your name be written [enscribed] in the Book of Life.)

ketoret : incense

ketubah : (alt. kethubhoth) (lit. writing) traditional marriage contract, detailing duties of wife and husband, and providing money penalties for divorcement of wife … a second marriage contract (pl. ketubot)

Ketuvim : the Writings; third section of the Tanakh

Ketuvim Shlichim : Apostolic Writings, also known as B’rit Chadashah. This should probably be the preferred term for this collection of writings, as the term B’rit Chadashah specifically refers to the Renewed Covenant itself, not to the writings of the Shlichim concerning that covenant. Considering the Ketuvim Shlichim as a separate volume of writings detracts from the unity of all Scripture. The Ketuvim Shlichim should more appropriately be considered a sub-set of the Ketuvim, and thus part of the Tanakh.

ketz : end, end of days

ketzinim : officers

kevah : lit. fixed; referring to the fixed order of Jewish liturgy

kevalim : chains

kevarim : graves; tombs

kevasim : (alt. kevesim) sheep

kever : tomb

kevod hamet : (alt. kebod) honor due to the dead

khasidah : stork

ki hu zeh : a small amount

Ki Tetze : a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy

Ki Tisa : a portion in the Book of Exodus

kibbud : respect; honor

kibush hayetzer : self-control

Kiddush : (alt. Kidush) blessing recited or chanted over wine on Shabbat or festivals emphasizing their holiness … pour out first cup of wine / blessing of sanctification … by extension, a light meal after the wine. “Barukh atah Adonai Elohaynu melekh ha-olam, borei p’riy hagafen. (Amein) Blessed are You, Lord, our G-d, King of the Universe, who creates the fruit of the vine. (Amen)”

Kiddush Hachodesh : (alt. Kidush) the sanctification of the New Moon

Kiddush Levanah : (alt. Kidush) the blessing of sanctification over the monthly renewal of the moon

kiddushin : (alt. qiddushin, kedushin) lit. holiness; refers both to the wedding ceremony and to the state of matrimony

kikar : loaf

kina : jealousy; envy

kina : lament; funeral dirge

kinah : (lamentation) elegy in poetic (piyyut) structure recited on Jewish days of mourning (pl. kinot)

kinnui : secular name; see shem kodesh

kinderyohrn : (Yid.) childhood days

kipah : (alt. kippa, kippah) lit. covering or atonement; a skullcap worn by Orthodox (and many other) Jews during prayer; the Yiddish term is yarmulke : many observant male Jews wear the kippa all the time, because we are encouraged to pray continually (Ps 72:15; Ps 122:6; Jer 29:7; Eph 6:18; 1Th 5:17)

kiporah —covering atonement that covers sin

Kisei Moshe : Chair of Moses

kishke : stuffed intestine … usually the stuffing is made of flour, onions, garlic and chicken fat. Today edible plastic is used instead of intestines. It is usually cooked in the cholent.

kishshuf : magic; sorcery (pl. kishufim)

Kislev : third month of Jewish year

kisot : thrones

Kisse Din : judgment seat

Kissei Kavod : Glorious Throne

kitel : (alt. kittel) long, white garment that is part of traditional Jewish burial clothes; worn by some worshipers on Yom Kippur as a reminder of mortality and a symbol of purity, and by some officiants at Rosh haShanah services and at the Passover Seder. Also worn by some grooms at their wedding

kitot : sects

Kitvei Hakodesh : Holy Books

klaf : hand-written scroll placed in a mezuzah, containing Deuteronomy 6:4-9; ll:13-21

Klal Yisrael : Nation of Israel

klalah : curse

klap : blow

klapei : concerning

klei kodesh : holy vessels; ministers

kleir : deliberating

klezmer : musician

kluhr : obvious

kluhr : pure

ko’ach : power

kodashim kalim : sacrifices of minor sanctity

kodem : preceding

kodesh : holy, sacred

Kodesh HaKodashim : Holy of Holies, or Most Holy Place; the area of the Tabernacle and Temple in which the Ark of the Covenant resided … see also HaKodesh : the Holy Place

kofer : ransom; pedut

koferim ba-ikkarim : deniers of fundamentals

kohanim gedolim : (alt. Cohanim Gedolim) the higher order of Priests

Kohelet : the Scroll of Ecclesiastes

kohen : (alt. cohen) descendant of the ancient priestly class, the progeny of Aaron; a priest (pl. kohanim, cohanim)

Kohen Gadol : (alt. Kohen haGadol, Cohen haGadol, Cohen Gadol) the High Priest (pl. kohanim gedolim)

kokhav : star (pl. kokhavim; kochavim)

kol ayin : every eye

kol basar : all flesh

kol davar : everything

kol etz : every tree

kol gadol : loud voice

kol hanivrah : all creation

kol melo : all the plentitude

Kol Nidrei : (alt. Nidrey) lit. vows; prayer that begins the Yom Kippur eve service; the entire service is often called the Kol Nidrei service … a prayer and announcement of repeal of vows recited upon the advent of the Day of Atonement

kol poalei resha : all workers of evil

kol sheker : every falsehood

kolot : sounds

komah : short of stature

korban : dedicated to God; sacrifice

korban chai : living sacrifice

korbanot : sacrifices

korech : matzah and bitter herb sandwich

korem : vineyard proprietor (pl. koremim)

kos : cup; little owl

kosher : (alt. kasher) ritually fit for use … permitted

kotz : thorn; splinter

kotzerim : harvesters

kozvim : liars

krav : battle

kri : the traditional pronunciation of words in the Torah

kri’ah : calling

kri’ah betzibbur : congregational public reading

krovey mishpachot : relatives

krovim : relatives

krum : deviant

kvatter / kvatterin : Godfather / Godmother; those who carry the baby into the B’rit ceremony

kviusdik : constant


l’olam : forever (lit. the everything)

Ladino : Judeo-Spanish; the everyday language of Sephardic Jews

Lag baOmer : 33rd day of 50 days of Omer

lailah : night

lamdan : a Torah scholar with prodigious knowledge

Lamed Hey : The Hebrew number 35 (hl). In Jewish belief there are always 35 righteous persons alive on earth serving HaShem; they are know either individually or collectively as the Lamed Heh.

Lamnatze’ach Ya’ancha Hashem : Psalm 20, recited on weekdays to mark sorrow and supplication

lashav : in vain

lashon : tongue, speech

lashon horah : evil speech

latreia : ministration of God, i.e. worship : divine service

lavan : white

Lech Lecha : the third portion in the Book of Genesis

lechem : bread; food

lechem chukeinu : “our daily bread;” Mt. 6:11

lechem ha’amitti : the true bread

Lechem HaPanim : the Bread of the Presence, Bread of Surfaces, specially shaped loaves placed weekly on the Table in the Tabernacle and Temple, represented the Bread of the Almighty

lechem mishneh : two loaves required for the blessing on Sabbath and Festival meals

lehitpalel : lit. to judge oneself; the Hebrew word meaning “to pray”

leitzonus : mockery; fun

lemaskana : finally

lernen : Torah learning; study

Leshanah Tovah Tikatevu : Literally: May you be inscribed [in the Book of Life] for a good year; Rosh haShanah greeting, sometimes shortened to Shanah Tovah

leshonot : tongues : 1Chron 14:13

letzim : (alt. leitzim) mockers/scorners; coarse jesting

lev : heart

lev rogez : anxious heart

levavot : hearts

Levi : one of the 12 sons of Ya’acov, ancestor of Moshe and Aharon; a Servant in the Sanctuary, a Sage of the Talmud

leviathan : sea monster mentioned in Job, of which the pious will eat at the resurrection

levirate : the institution of the brother-in-law (marrying his brothers widow)

Levites : the tribe of Levi; the hereditary lineage from which came the priests and others who ministered in the Temple … the direct descendants of Aahron served as cohenim, the rest of the tribe served as Levites

lichora : apparently

limin : at the right hand

limmud : instruction

Lion of the Tribe of Judah : a name for HaMashiach, based on Revelation 5:5; cf. Isaiah 11:1

lismol : at the left hand

lo : no; when used with other words it denotes negation

lo poreh : unfruitful (lit. no fruit)

loin : wages

loit : according to

lomdes : cleverness; erudition

lomdish : intricate and complicated to understand

lu yetzuuyar : assuming

luach : tablet

lulav : palm branch, with myrtle and willow sprigs attached; with the etrog, it is the symbol of Sukkot … a palm branch taken as one of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles … also used to refer to all four species used on Sukkos: palm branch, myrtle branch, willow, and citron. (pl. Lulavim)


ma’al : betrayal

ma’amad ha’banim : the standing as sons

ma’aminim : believers

ma’arav : ambush

ma’arav : west

ma’aseh haemunah : work of faith

ma’aseh tov : good deed

ma’asei haChoshech : works of darkness

ma’aser : tithe (a tenth portion) given to the Kohen, the Levite, or the poor (pl. Ma’asrot; alt. maasros)

ma’asim : works

ma’asim hamitzvot : works of the commandments

ma’asim hara’im : evil deeds

ma’asim metim : dead works

ma’asim tovim : good deeds; works

ma’avak : struggle

ma’ayanot : springs; sources

ma’on : permanent residence

ma’ot chittim : money for wheat; financial contributions

Maamad : “Station”—groups of lay people who assisted the Levites at the daily sacrifices one week a year

maamadot : contributions

maamin Meshichi : Messianic believer

maariv : evening prayer service … evening prayers after sunset

maasros : (alt. ma’aser) tithe

mabbul : flood

machah : to stroke or rub; by implication to erase; also to smooth (as if with oil), i.e. grease or make fat; also to touch, i.e. reach to : abolish, blot out, destroy, full of marrow, put out, reach unto, utterly, wipe (away, out)

machalifei hakesafim : moneychangers

machaloket : controversy

machaloket : division of dissension

machanot : encamping armies

machla : illness

machlokot : divisions of dissension

machmir : stickler

machovim : sorrows

machsh’vot : thoughts

machshavah : thought

machshelah : ruin

machshiv : respect

machsor : shortage; want

Machzor : (Repetition) High Holy Day prayer book. In some Orthodox synagogues, a special prayer book—also known as a machzor—is used on the Pilgrimage Festivals

madduchei shav : false enticement; delusion

madon : strife; quarrel

mafte’ach : key

Maftir : Last part of Torah reading on a given Shabbos or festival … the man who is “called up” to the reading of the concluding passage

Magen Avot : a short summary of the Sabbath amidah prayer recited on Sabbath Eve after the silent prayer

maggid : darshan; preacher, generally itinerant, and popular because of his clever parables … narration

Maggid of Mezritch : Reb Dov Ber of Mezritch; main disciple of the Ba’al Shem Tov and leader of the Chassidic movement after him; also a disciple of the Pnei Yehoshua; born 1704; died 19 Kislev, 1772; mentor of the whole next generation of Chassidic Rebbes.

Mah Nishtanah : Four Questions; at the beginning of the Passover Seder, the youngest child traditionally asks the “Four Questions” which prompt the leader of the Seder to explain the significance of Passover to the celebrants

makhaneh : camp

makhar : tomorrow

makkah : plague

makor : fountain

malach : angel (pl. malachim)

malbush : clothing

male no’am : full of pleasantness

malkah : queen

malkosh : spring rain

malkot : the penalty of lashing

Malkut Shamayim : The Kingdom of Heaven

malon : inn

malshin : informer; accuser

mamashus : real worth

mamlechot : kingdoms

mammon : ill-gained money

manhigim : leaders

manhigut : leadership

manhigut ruchanit : spiritual leadership / administration

manoach : resting place

maot chitim : (alt. maoz chittin) lit. wheat money … money collected prior to Passover to assist the needy to celebrate the holiday and to buy special Passover foods

maoz : fortress

Maoz Tsur : best-known Chanukkah song. An English version of the song is entitled “Rock of Ages.”

mareh : vision

maror : bitter, ground horseradish … a bitter herb such as horseradish, symbolizing the bitter plight of the enslaved Israelites; one of the symbolic foods used on the seder plate

marot : visions

Marranoes : forcibly converted Jews in Spain

marut : authority; rule

marzipan : a confection made of almond paste and sugar and molded into small shapes, usually of fruits and vegetables

masah : trial (pl. masot)

Mashgiach Ruchani : Spiritual Overseer

Mashiach : (alt. Moshiach) Messiah, anointed, an anointed one. In Israel three classes of persons were anointed for their office of service: prophets, priests, and kings. Yeshua HaMashiach is all three: Prophet, Priest, and King, hence The Anointed One

mashkeh : drink

maskana : outcome

maso panim : favoritism; partiality

masoret : tradition

Masoretic Text : the accepted Hebrew text of scriptures, the first Hebrew writing to contain vowel points as an aid to pronunciation, developed in the 9th century C.E.

masot : trials / temptations (sg. masah)

matanah : gift (pl. matanot)

matanot tovot : good gifts

matarah : objective

mateh : deceiver

matnat hachesed : free gift of grace

Matnat HaTzedakah : the gift of righteousness

matnat kesef : gift of money

matsevot : gravestones

matsli’ach : successful

mattah : below

mattan torah : (alt. matan) the giving of the law or instruction

mattanah : free gift

mattanot le-evyonim : giving to the poor

Mattityahu : Matthew; The Gospel According to Matthew; first book of the Ketuvim Shliachim presenting Yeshua HaMashiach in his role as HaMelech

matzah : (alt. matzo, pl. matzot) “without leaven”; a flat bread made without adding leavening (yeast or baking powder). Called the “bread of affliction.” Unleavened bread … The unleavened bread eaten in recollection of the hurried departure from Egypt; the eating of matzah is obligatory only at the seder (pl. Matzot)

matzo tash : (Yid.) a baglike fabric container used for the three ritual wafers of unleavened bread at the seder

matzpun : conscience

matzpun naki : clear conscience

mavet : death

mavo : introduction

mayim : water

mayim hayim : living water

mazal tov : good luck; congratulations

mazikim : malicious spirits

me’ah vchamishim ushloshah : one hundred and fifty three

me’onot : dwelling places; permanent residences; homes

me’ushar : blessedness

meah kevasim : a hundred sheep

meayen : engaged in research

mechabed : honor

mechila : pardon; forgiveness

Mechilta : Halakhic midrash to Exodus

mechitzah : the dividing partition

medakdeke : painstakingly thorough

Medieval : relating to or characteristic of the Middle Ages

mefakkechim : stewards; supervisors

mefarsem : make known

megadef : reviler (pl. megadefim)

megareia : weakened

megillah : (alt. megilah) lit. scroll; there are five megillot in the Bible. The one we read on Sukkot is Ecclesiastes, on Purim is Esther, on Pesach is Song of Songs, on Shavuot is Ruth, and on Tishah Be’av is Lamentations (pl. megillot)

meid : provide testimony; attest

mekabel : receiving; accepting

mekanne : jealous; envious

mekhonen : founder

mekom linah : guest room

mekom megurim : dwelling place

mekor : basis

mekor : passage; citation

melach : salt

melachah : work

melammed : instructor

melech : king (pl. melachim)

melitz echad : one mediator; (Iyon 33:23; Yeshayah 43:27; cf. Devarim 5:5;22-31)

melo : plentitude

memayet : precluded; excluded

memshalah : government; dominion

mena’afim : adulterers

Meni : pagan moon goddess

menorah : the Lamp of the Sanctuary … a 7-branched candelabra representing the lampstand that stood in the Holy Place within the Temple … a version with eight branches plus the shammash (Chanukkiah) is used during Chanukka, in celebration of the Maccabean victory over the Greeks and the rededication of the Temple (pl. Menorot)

menuchah : (alt. menuhan) resting place

meorer : point out; rekindle, stimulate; motivate; shtarken

mered : revolt; uprising

merirut lev : bitterness

merivah : strife

merkavot : chariots

mesader : arrange; place in succession

meshabed : caused to be obligated

meshalim : parables

meshalle’ach : sender

mesharet : minister; servant

mesharetim : ministers; servants

meshichei sheker : false Mashiachs

meshubad : obligated

meshummad : apostate

mesibot : parties

mesim : deceased ones

mesiras nefesh : self sacrifice

Mesorah : the traditional essential requirements in the writing of a Torah Scroll

Messiah : English transliteration of Hebrew Mashiach or Moshiach, meaning “The Anointed One” of God who was to come to fill all three offices for which one must receive anointing; prophet, priest, and king; the promised Redeemer

Messianic Community : the called-out community of Believers in Messiah; used to refer to the entire Body of Messiah as a whole, as well as the local congregation. We use the terms Miqra, Messianic Community, and Body of Messiah interchangeably.

Messianic hatafah : preaching Mashiach

mesupak : uncertain; doubting

metohar : purified

metoharim : clean

metsakhim : foreheads

metzorah : a leper (pl. metzoraim)

mevugar : mature; adult (pl. mevugarim

meyayesh : despairing

mezarez : a spur into action

mezimma : evil design; intrigue

mezuzah : (lit. doorpost) a ritual object consisting of a casing and a klaf that is put on the doorpost(s) of the house (pl. mezuzot)

michshol : stumbling block (pl. michsholim)

michyah : subsistence .

midah hatov : the attribute of virtue

midas chasidus : quality of piety

Midat Hadin : the Divine Attribute of Justice

midbar : wilderness

midrash : (1) homiletical interpretation of the Scriptures; exegesis; commentary (pl. Midrashim); (2) a collection of works compiled between the third and twelfth centuries that seeks out underlying truths and meanings of the Bible; they are the result of the process of delving into the ramifications of a biblical verse and of the ancient rabbis’ reading “between the lines” of Scripture

mifkad : census

migdal : tower

mikdash me’at : lit. a small sanctuary; refers to the home

mikhla : fold [enclosure]

mikvah : (alt. miqvah) a pool of “living” water conforming to certain dimensions and specifications, used for legal and spiritual purposes … also called by the Latin term “ritularium” … the ritual bathing (immersion) in the pool … Christian “baptism” is a based upon this concept, but has been changed from the practice followed by the early Messianic Believers. Christian “baptism” is generally performed by the clergy upon the recipient, whereas mikvah is performed by the individual upon one’s self under the supervision of a rabbi.

milah : circumcision

milchamot : wars

mimeila : consequently; as a result

minchah : from an unused root mean. to apportion, i.e. bestow; a donation; euphem. tribute; specifically a sacrificial offering (usually bloodless and voluntary) : gift, oblation, (meat) offering, present, sacrifice … afternoon prayer; name of Temple sacrifice … evening prayers during the day … a gift offering in the Sanctuary … an offering made of flour and oil (pl. Menachot)

minhag : custom (pl minhagim)

minim : apostates, heretics; a derogatory term for early (1st and early 2nd century) Jewish Believers in Messiah

minut : heresy; apostasy

minyan : quorum of ten adult Jews necessary for public prayer

miqra : (alt. miqrah, mikra, mikrah) something or someone “called out” … a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal, assembly, calling,  convocation, reading … equivalent to Greek ekklesia, called-out ones, erroneously (and we believe deliberately and anti-Semitically) translated “church” in the KJV, which error has continued in later English translations of the Scriptures. There is no valid linguistic or Biblical reason for translating the word “ekklesia” or for referring to the people of Mashiach as “the church” : it is only a Gentile tradition. We use the terms Miqra, Messianic Community, and Body of Messiah interchangeably.

miqvah : see. mikvah

miqveh : something waited for, i.e. confidence; also a collection, i.e. (of water) a pond, or (of men and horses) a caravan or drove : abiding, gathering together, hope, linen yarn, plenty [of water], pool

mir’eh : pasture

mirmah : deceit

mishcha : ointment

mishkan : a residence (including a shepherd’s hut, the lair of animals; figuratively the grave); also the Temple; specifically the Tabernacle (prop. its wooden walls) : to dwell, a dwelling (place), habitation, tabernacle, tent … the Sanctuary Tent

mishlo’ach manot : the sending of “portions” to friends on Purim

mishma’at : obedience

Mishnah : code of Jewish oral law edited by Rabbi Judah HaNasi (c. 135 to 220 C.E.) about 200 C.E.; together with the Gemara forms the Talmud

mishpachah : (alt. mishpakhah, mishpochah) a family, i.e. circle of relatives; figuratively a class (of persons), a species (of animals) or sort (of things); by extension a tribe or people : family, kindred

mishpachot : (alt. mishpakhot, mishpokhot) : relatives

mishpat : judgment (pl. mishpatim)

mishpat mavet : a death sentence

Mishpatim : a portion in the Book of Exodus

mishpoyel : standing in awe

mishrah : rule

mishtatef : involved; joining

mispar : number

mitamuhl : suddenly

mitarev : meddlesome

mitnagged : opponent

mitnaggedim : opponents

Mitzbe’ach; : altar

mitznefet : head wrapping

Mitzrayim : Hebraic equivalent of “Egypt.” Spiritually, a picture of the world and the world’s system

mitzvah : (alt. mitzvoh) (lit. commandment) a religious precept or obligation; one of the 613 commandments in the Torah … principle for living, good deed; instruction (pl. mitzvot)

mitzvat aseh : a positive command; a commandment-to-do

mitzvat lo ta’aseh : a prohibition; a commandment-not-to-do

mitzvot : divine commandments; specifically the divine commandments given by Hashem to Moshe Rebbenu and by Yeshua to us through the Shlichim (sg. mitzvah)

mizmor : hymn; psalm

Mizmor Letodah : Psalm 101 recited daily to commemorate the Thanksgiving Offering in the Sanctuary

mizrach : east

mo’adim : fixed times/seasons/festivals

mo’ed (alt. mow’ed) : an appointment, i.e. a fixed time or season; specifically a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand) : appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn (-ity), synagogue, (set) time (appointed)

mochesim : tax-collectors

mochiach : one arbitrator

modeh ani : I give thanks

mofet : example; role model

moftim : miracles; wonders

Mohel : A Rabbi specifically trained and authorized to perform ritual circumcision (pl. Mohalim)

moineia : prevented

moked : fire

Molad, Molad Halevanah : the appearance of the new Moon (pl. Moladot)

morech lev : cowardliness

moreh : teacher

Moreh Tzaddikim : Teacher of Righteousness mori : my teacher

moshav hashafel : low seat

Moshe : Hebrew name of Moses

moshel : governor (pl. moshelim)

Moshiach : (alt. Mashiach, Moshi’a) Messiah, Savior

Moshieynu : our Deliverer

moshlim : rulers

Motza’ei Shabbat (alt. Shabat) : the night following the Sabbath

Motzi (alt. Hammotzee, Hamotzi) : Literally: [God] who brings forth [bread]; blessing over bread; standard blessing before meals at which bread is served … one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony

Mount Moriah : The Temple site at Jerusalem; also reputed to be the mountain where Avraham bound his son Yitzhak to the altar.

Mount Sinai : The mountain from which the Torah was given by HaShem to Moshe

mufkarim : lawless ones

muktzeh : an object forbidden to carry on the Sabbath and Festival because of its not being fit or meant for use on that day

mumim : defects

murshe : proxy

musar : teaching with an ethical point

mussaf : (alt. musaf) “added” prayer service for Sabbaths and Festivals, immediately following morning prayer … the additional whole offering in the Sanctuary prescribed by the Torah for Sabbaths, Festivals and New Moons; Today: an additional Amidah prayer on said days as against the additional sacrifices


Na’anu’im : the waving of the four species on the Feast of Tabernacles

nacham : breathe strongly; by implication to be sorry, i.e. (in a favorable sense) to pity, console, or (reflex.) rue; or (unfavorably) to avenge (oneself) : comfort (self), ease [one’s self], repent (-er, -ing, self)

Pachash Hakadomony : the Predatory Snake

nachem : a prayer for consolation

Nachum Ish Gamzu : Tana, who was known for always accepting whatever tragedies and troubles that befell him as for the good, and saying, “Gom Zu L’Tovah (This is also for the good).” A teacher of Rabbi Akiva.

nafsheinu : our souls

naga : to touch, i.e. lay the hand upon (for any purpose); euphemistically to lie with a woman; by implication to reach (figuratively to arrive, acquire); violently, to strike (punish, defeat, destroy, etc.) : beat, (be able to) bring (down), cast, come/draw near, get up, happen, join, near, plague, reach (up), smite, strike, touch

naggar : carpenter

nakam : vengeance

namer : leopard

naniach : supposing

narrishkait : foolishness

nashim : wives

nasi (alt. nasiy) : an exalted one, i.e. a king or sheik; also a rising mist … captain, chief, cloud, governor, prince, ruler, vapour … head of the people, a head of a Tribe, a Prince (pl. Nesi’im)

Naso : a portion in the Book of Numbers

natsal : to snatch away, whether in a good or a bad sense : defend, deliver (one’s self), escape, without fail, part, pluck, preserve, recover, rescue, rid, save, spoil, strip, surely, take (out)

navi : (alt. nevi) prophet

nazah : to spurt, i.e. besprinkle (specifically in expiation) : sprinkle

Nazoraeans : Judaizing Christian sect (not to be confused with Nazarenes, a general term for Christians)

ne’eman : faithful

ne’emanah : reliable

ne’emanot : faithful

ne’emanut : faithfulness; trustworthiness; reliability

ne’evad : lost; perish; be ruined with destruction

nechalim : deceitfulness

nechamah : comfort

nechashim : serpents

nedavot : donations

neder : vow (pl. nederim)

nedivut : generosity; kindness

neeman : faithful

Neertzah : (alt. Nirtzah) acceptance, closing prayer … the last phase of the Seder ceremony

nefashot : souls

neharot : rivers

nehneh : benefit

Neilah : (lit. closing) concluding service of Yom Kippur … closing of the gate

nekevah : female

Nesech : the libation of wine over the altar in the Sanctuary accompanying the sacrifices

nesher— eagle or vulture (pl. nesharim)

neshikah : kiss

nessuim : marriage

Neta Revai : the fruit of the fourth year after planting

Netilat Lulav : the commandment of the Four Species in the Feast of Tabernacles

netz : hawk

nevel : harp (pl. nevalim)

nevi : (alt. navi) prophet

Nevi’im : Prophets, or the books of the Tenach known as “the Prophets”

neviah : prophetess

nevu’ah— (alt. nevuah) : prophecy (pl. nevu’ot)

nichbad : noble

nichbadim : dignitaries

niddah : ritually unclean woman

niflaot : wonders

niftar : deceased; dead (pl. niftarim)

nifteret : deceased person

nikar : evident

Nisan : the first month in the Jewish calendar, also known as Abib or Aviv, during which Pesach falls

nisayon : trial; temptation

nisayonos : tests; trials

nishba’im lasheker : perjurers

nissayon : temptation

nissim : miracles

nissuin : (alt. nisuin) in ancient times, the formal wedding ceremony

nistar : hidden; in secret

nisu’im : marriage

Nisuch Hamayim : the libation of water in the Sanctuary during the Feast of Tabernacles

nisyonos : (alt. nisyonot) temptations

nitzachon : victory

nitzrach : needy

niuf : adultery (pl. niufim)

nivcharim : chosen ones

nivra : anything created

no’efot : adulterers

Noahide : of or relating to the covenant made with Noah

noch : still

noiheg : habitually

nokhri : foreigner

nu : well; slang – What’s up?

nusach : liturgical melodies at services


ochel : eater

od zman : more time

of haShomayim : birds of heaven

ofen ort : immediately

ogen : anchor

ohavei kesef : lovers of money

ohavei ta’anugot : lovers of pleasures

Ohel Mo’ed : the “Tent of Meeting”

ohev es haTov : a lover of the good

ohev riv : quarrelsome

ohevet shalom : peace-loving

oholim : tents

ohr : light

oib azoi : consequently

oif eibik : forever

ois vaist : ostensibly

oisgehalten : trustworthy

oisher : rich man; ashir

oketz : the stalk of the etrog

okhel : food

ol : yoke

olah : burnt offering in Temple

olalim : (alt. ollelim) infants

olam : world; more literally as “everything,” so probably better translated as universe, everything, eternal, eternity

Olam HaBa : (alt. Olam HaBah or Olam Habba) (lit. the world to come) depending on context, refers to (a) the life of the soul after death, or to (b) the time after Messiah comes, or the Messianic Kingdom age, or (c) the “new creation” of the Revelation.

Olam HaZeh : the present age, world of toil

olamim : ages

oman : artist

omein : (alt. amen, amein) so be it; surely, truly

omenet : governess

omer : sheaf or bushel of grain

ometz lev : boldness

omnot : governesses

onan : (alt. onen) mourner (between death and burial) … a mourning relative

Oneg Shabbat : (lit. joy of the Sabbath) reception after Shabbat services, which includes refreshments, socializing, and, sometimes, Israeli dancing or a discussion

onesh : punishment; penalty

onesh mavet : the death penalty

oni : poverty

oniyah : sailing vessel

Onkelos : a targum on the Pentateuch

orchim ratzuy : welcome guests

orev - raven

orlah : fruit picked during the first three years after planting which is forbidden by the Torah

ormah : cunning

orthodox : (lit. correct worship) according to a correct interpretation of the Scriptures; a modern term to distinguish “traditional” Jews from those who allow departure from tradition. Contemporary orthodoxy would be akin to ancient Phariseeism.

oseh ra’ah : an evil doer

Oseif : Gathering of the Nobles

osher : riches

ozniah - osprey

ot : miraculous sign (pl. otot)

otzar : treasury (pl. otzarot)

ovdei elilim : idolaters

oy : woe

oyev : enemy (pl. oyevim; oyvim)

oz : power

ozen : ear (pl. oznayim)

ozer : helper (pl. ozrim)


p’ri : fruit

Parush : Pharisee; a religious leader who is a member of the party of the Pharisees (pl. P’rushim)

P’rushim : Pharisees; the Party of the Pharisees; see Pharisees

pachad : (alt. pakhad) fear; terror

padut : redemption

pakad : visit

Parah Adumah : Red Heifer, a special sacrificial animal (see Shabbat Parah)

Parashah : the weekly Torah portion; also called Sidrah or Sedrah or Sidra (pl. Parashot)

pareve : foods containing neither meat nor milk

parim : young bulls

parnasah : livelihood

parochet : (alt. parokhet) curtain … when capitalized, the curtain over the Ark in the Synagogue; the curtain separating the Holy of Holies from the Hechal

pasach : (alt. pesah, pesach) passing over; letting go the penalty of

Pascal Lamb : (alt. Paschal) the lamb selected for the Pesach/Passover sacrifice; haMashiach

Pascha : Greek transliteration of the Hebrew pesach, meaning “Passover.”

paskudneh : contemptible

Passover : From the Hebrew pesah; the first of the seven feasts of YHWH; the Paschal sacrifice; title may also include Feast of Unleavened Bread.

patur : exempt; free

payes : corners; therefore, earlocks of hair or sidecurls worn by ultra-Orthodox men and boys (pl. payot)

pe’ulot : works

pedut : redemption; geulah; release on payment of ransom

peh : mouth

pekuddat : stewardship; care

peledike : marvelous

penemer : faces

Pentateuch : the first five Books of the Bible, the Five Books of Moshe

Pentecost : In Hebrew, Shavuoth, the Feast of Weeks; the fiftieth day after the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread; the festival of the ingathering of the first fruits of the wheat harvest.

peres : gier; eagle

perot : fruits

Perushim : Pharisees; the upholders of the Oral Torah at the time of the Second Sanctuary

peruta : small coin

Pesabim : a section of Talmudic commentary on the feast of the Passover

Pesach : (alt. Pesah) Passover. Memorializes the night when the Hebrews were protected by the blood of lambs, a type of when God’s people are redeemed by the blood of The Lamb. One of three pilgrim festivals to Jerusalem. (pl. Pesachim)

Pesach Katan : the second offering of the Paschal Lamb on the 14th of Iyar

Pesach Sheni : the 14th of Iyar, the offering of the Pesach Sacrifice by those who were not able to do so on the 14th of Nisan

peshat : plain or literal meaning

peshuto shel mikra : simple reading of the verse

Pesikta : Book of Haggadic discourses for festivals and special Sabbaths

petach : doorway

peysha : transgression

peysha’im : transgressions [Yeshayah 53:5]

Pharaoh : King of Egypt; considered deity by Egyptians

Pharisees : A strict religio-political party in late Second Temple period who were known for their zealous adherence to the teaching of the rabbis concerning the Torah. Their chief doctrine was that salvation and God’s favor would come as a result of Torah observance … they wanted to develop Judaism through prayer, study of Torah, and midrashic interpretations of Torah; forerunners of the rabbis. Modern Judaism is very closely related to the beliefs and practices of the Pharisees, and the teaching of Yeshua was very close to that of the Pharisees except for their extra-Biblical practices.

phobeo : (Gk.) to frighten, i.e. (passive) to be alarmed; by analogy to be in awe of, i.e. revere : be (very) afraid, fear (exceedingly), reverence

pidyon haben / habat : lit. redemption of the (firstborn) son / daughter; home ceremony that takes place on the thirty-first day of a child’s life

pikkadon : deposit

piku’ach nefesh : the care for human life

Pikudey : a portion in the Book of Exodus

Pilgrim Festival/Feast : Shalosh Regalim : Three times a year (Pesach, Shavuot, and Sukkot) the Torah requires all Israel to go in joyous celebration to Jerusalem. [If anyone would try to coerce you to be overly “Torah observant” remind him/her that in order to be “Torah observant” he/she must attend these three Feasts in Jerusalem.]

Pinchas : a portion in the Book of Numbers

Pirkey Avot : “the Ethics of the Fathers”, a tractate in the Mishnah

pisechim : lame persons

pisei’ach : lame man

pitma : the wart of the etrog

pitron : interpretation (pl. pitronim)

piyyut : (alt. piyut) Poetic prayer … liturgical poem (pl. piyyutim; alt. piyutim)

platke-machers : gossipy intriguers

plotst : burst

pneuma : (Gk.) a current of air, i.e. breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figuratively a spirit, i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, HaMashiach’s spirit, the Holy Spirit —life, spirit (-ual, -ually) : Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word ruach

pnimiyus : innermost

po’alim : workers

poel : worker

poshe’im : the ones transgressing / rebelling

poshei’a : transgressor

posher : lukewarm

praht : detail

pri, p’ri : fruit

priests : descendants of Aaron (of the tribe of Levi) who officiated at religious services in the Temple; they also served as judges, physicians, and teachers.

proselyte : a convert to Judaism

Psak : Jewish legal ruling.

pseudepigraphic : written under another name

pshat : rationale

ptur : excuse

punkt : exactly

Purim : Lots. The observed day (usually in March) commemorating the deliverance and survival of God’s people. The beginning of the Passover season; a time of teshuvah.


qahal : assembly, company, congregation, multitude

qehelathah : (alt. kehelathah) convocation; a place in the desert

qoheleth : (alt. koheleth) a (female) assembler (i.e. lecturer); abstractly, preaching : preacher


ra’a; ra’ah; rah : evil

ra’am gadol : loud thunder

ra’av : famine

ra’im : evil; evil ones

rabbi : a Jewish teacher or religious authority (pl. rabanim)

rabbim : many

rachamanut : compassion; mercy

rachamim : mercy

Rachatzah : (alt. Rochtzah) washing : “celebrant washes,” one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony : the phase of the Seder ceremony in which hands are washed for the meal. (See Ur’chatz.)

rachmanim : mercy

ragel hayemanit : right foot

raglayim : feet

Rahab : (alt. Rachav) proud, harlot, broad. The word “Rahab” means a wall or broad place. This is where we get the derogatory term “broad” for a woman … False messianic kingdom

rakham : vulture

Ramah : Seat of Idolatry

raot : evil

rasha : (alt. rashah, resha) : an evildoer; the wholly wicked … iniquitous (pl. rashim, rasha’im)

Rashei HaKohanim : Chief Priests

rashei hamoshavot : chief seats

rashuyot : authorities

ratzchaniyot : murderers

ratzon : will

Rav : a Sage of the Talmud; shortened for of Rabbi

ravrevan : braggart

ravrevanut : boastfulness

raz : mystery; secret (pl. razim)

re’a : neighbor

Re’eh : a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy

rechilus : gossip

redifah : persecution (pl. redifot)

Refa’enu : “Heal us …”, one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah

refuah : healing (pl. refuot)

regel : foot

rehkov : street (pl. rehkovot)

reim : friends

remez : alluding to

remiyah : guile; deceit

resha : (alt. rasha) wicked, -ness , unrighteous, evildoer (pl. resha’im)

reshet : net

reshit : first

reshus : authorization

retzach : murder (pl. retzichot)

retzinut : earnestness

revach : gain; profit

revachah : relief

reyka : good for nothing! … spiritually bankrupt, completely without moral value (transliterated in the English N.T. as rakah)

richtik : correct

riezige : sizable

rishonim : first ones

ro’eh : shepherd

Rochtzah : (alt. Rachatzah; Ur’chatz) one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony; the phase in which hands are washed for the meal

rofeh : physician

rogez : anger

roiv : the larger portion

rosh : head

Rosh Chodesh : (alt. Hodesh) New Month. The head/beginning of the month.

Rosh HaShanah : lit. head of the year; Jewish New Year. Feast of Trumpets (Yom Teruah). Head/start of the Civil Year

Rosh Hodesh : (alt. Chodesh) New Month. The head/beginning of the month.

rotzeach : murderer

rotzeachim : murderers

ruach : wind; spirit

ruach anavah : humble spirit

Ruach HaKodesh : Holy Spirit; the Spirit of Mashiach

Ruchanit : Spiritual; of the Ruach HaKodesh

ruchaniyut : spirituality in Rebbe Melech HaMashiach

ruchot hatemeiot : unclean spirits

ruchot raot : evil spirits


s’lihot : liturgical prayers of teshuvah (repentance)

s’michah : ordination

s’phirah— emanation(s) from the ultimate, infinite, indefinable Godhead toward the palpable world; aspects of God (pl. s’phirot)

sachar : reward

Sadducees : see Tzedokim

sadeh : field

sakanot mavet : mortal danger

sakkim : sackcloth

Samael : the devil

samchut : authority

sandak : person who holds the baby during the Berit Milah ceremony

Sanhedrin : the High Court in Jerusalem; the Israel Supreme Court during the Second Temple period; the legislative and judicial parliament supposedly descendant from the seventy elders appointed by Moshe

sanhedriyot : local councils/bet din courts

sar : a head person (of any rank or class) : captain (that had rule), chief (captain), general, governor, keeper, Lord, taskmaster, prince, ruler, steward

Sar Shalom : Prince of Peace, Mashiach

sarig : shoot; branch

sarisim : eunuchs

sasson : joy

savlanut : patient endurance

savta : grandmother

scapegoat : see Azazel

schnorrer’s : beggar’s

Scribes : the Sages who transcribed and interpreted the Torah and its Laws

sdeh krav : battlefield

se’irim : goats

sebomai : (Gk.) to revere, i.e. adore : devout, religious, worship

Second Temple : the house of worship built at Jerusalem after the return of Israel from the Babylonian Captivity

seder : lit. order; ritual for the home celebration of the first (and second) evening(s) of Pesach … the ceremony to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt on Passover Eve; the ritual Passover meal which is observed in a specific order

Seder Avodah : (alt. Abodah) the “order of Service” that the Kohen Gadol performs in the Sanctuary on the day of Atonement

seder plate : a shallow, usually compartmentalized dish that holds the symbolic foods of the Passover seder

sefer : book

sefer katan : small book

sefer keritut : bill of divorcement

Sefer Torah : (alt. Sifrei) Torah scroll (pl. Sefarim)

sefirah —counting

S’firat HaOmer (Counting the Omer) is the period of 50 days from Yom HaBikkurim until Shavuot

Sefirah : the “days of counting” between the Passover and Pentecost

seichel : good sense; understanding

selah : a musical notation found in the psalms which is generally understood to be a pause; thus, “pause and reflect on this”

selicha : forgiveness

selichot : penitential prayers

Selichot Service : a service of preparation for the High Holy Days, usually held at midnight on the Saturday preceding Rosh haShanah

semichah— ordination, ordained rabbis (pl. semuchim)

Sephardi : of Oriental Jewish communities (pl. Sephardim)

Sephardim —a cultural branch of Judaism; descendants of the Jews who fled Spain and Portugal after the Edict of Expulsion in 1492. They share a common language known as Ladino (a variant of Spanish), as opposed to northern European Jews (Ashkenazi), who speak Yiddish (a Germanic dialect).

seqilah : stoning

seraphim : fiery angels

sereifah : death by burning

seudah : banquet

seudah : feast

Seudah Mafseket : (alt. Hemafseket) the “meal of cessation” before a fast

Seudah shel Mitzvah : a festive meal that honors the observance of a mitzvah; a meal prescribed by the Torah or the Sages, same as Seudat Mitzvah

Seudah Shelishit : (alt. Shlishit) lit. third meal; a light meal eaten late on Shabbat afternoon … the third meal eaten on the Sabbath

Seudat Chavurah : (alt. Havra’ah, Chaburah) lit. meal of condolence; prepared by friends of the mourners and eaten in the house of mourning immediately following a funeral

seudot : banquet dinners

sevivon : dreidel (four-sided top used in a Chanukkah game)

sfeka deyoma : doubt as to the exact date of the day

sh’lamim : peace offerings

sha’ah; shaah : hour; time

sha’atnez : a cloth combining wool and linen

sha’ot : hours

shaar hatzarut : gate of narrowness

Shabbat : (alt. Shabbos) Sabbath. The seventh day of the week. God’s appointed day of rest, a holy convocation. Rest, cease. (Sephardic pronunciation)

Shabbat Bereshit : (alt. Bereishit) the first Sabbath after Simchat Torah on which the portion of Bereishit (Genesis) is read Shabbat Chazon : the Sabbath before the Ninth of Av

Shabbat HaGadol : The Great Shabbat precedes Pesach. It is the day the lambs are selected and brought into the home for a week of close observation to determine their suitability as the Pesach sacrifice. It was on this day that Yeshua entered Jerusalem (the “house” of Israel) for one week’s close observation by Israel of His suitability to be their Paschal Lamb, marked by his “triumphant entry” into Jerusalem.

Shabbat HaHodesh : the fourth Shabbat of the Purim sequence; precedes the new year

Shabbat Mevarchim : the Sabbath on which the forthcoming month is blessed

Shabbat Nachamu : the Sabbath after the Ninth of Av

Shabbat Parah : the third Shabbat of the Purim sequence. Refer to the ordinance of the Parah Adumah (Red Heifer) in B’Midbar (Numbers) 19:1-22 : Purification before the feasts of Pesach/Hag HaMatzot.

Shabbat Shirah : “the Sabbath of Song”, the Sabbath on which “the song of the sea” is read in the portion of Beshalach

Shabbat Shuvah : lit. Sabbath of Return; the Sabbath between Rosh haShanah and Yom Kippur

Shabbat Zachor : The first Shabbat of the Purim sequence; the Sabbath immediately preceding Purim

Shabbaton : Seven High Sabbaths … sabbath program of study and celebration (pl. Shabbatonim)

Shabbos : (alt. Shabbat) The Sabbath (Ashkenazic pronunciation)

shachah : to depress, i.e. prostrate (specifically reflexive in homage to royalty or God) : bow (self) down, crouch, fall down (flat), humbly beseech, do (make) obeisance, do reverence, make to stoop, worship

Shacharit (alt. Shararit) : Morning Prayer. From Hebrew for “dawn” … Morning prayer service

shachat : corruption

Shaddai : the Almighty

shadkhan : marriage-broker

shaichus : closeness; friendship; intimacy

shakan : to reside or permanently stay (lit. or figuratively) : abide, continue, (cause to, make to) dwell (-er), have habitation, inhabit, lay, place, (cause to) remain, rest, set (up) : see Shekhinah

shakhor : black

shakran : liar (pl. shakranim)

shalakh : cormorant

shalem b’guf : healthy

shaliach : an agent sent with the full authority of the person doing the sending; Apostle (pl. Shlichim, alt. Shliachim)

Shaliach Tzibur : the presenter of the prayers in the Synagogue, the Cantor

shalitim : rulers

shalom : lit. peace … denotes all the fullness of harmony, well-being, and comfort needed for one to be at complete peace

Shalom Zachor : first Friday following birth

shalosh : three

shalosh paamim : three times

Shalosh Regalim : see Pilgrim Festival

Shalosh Seudot : the three festive meals prescribed for the Sabbath

shamash : (alt. shammash) : lit. servant; term for the ninth candle used to light the other candles in the Chanukiah … the beadle in the Synagogue; equivalent to Gk. deaconos (translated “deacon” in the Ketuvim Shlichim)

shammai : (alt. shammai) school of …

shanah : year (pl. shanim)

sharsherot : chains / fetters

shatnez : mixture of wool and linen material which we are proscribed from wearing (Deut 22:5-12)

Sha’ul : (1) the first king of Israel. (2)Best known of all Messianic Rabbis, Yeshua’s Shliach sent primarily to the Goyim and scribe of approximately half of the Ketuvim Shlichim.

Shavuot : (alt. Shavuoth) lit. “weeks” : The feast of Weeks or Pentecost (50 days); one of the three Pilgrim Feasts. The 50th day from Yom Habikkurim memorializes the receiving of the Torah, and the beginning of the wheat harvest. Also, it represents the betrothal between Israel and the Lord. It was on this day that Ruach HaKodesh came to permanently indwell the Miqra (Acts 2) as the “down-payment” or “bride price.” (sg. Shavuah) (also Hag Hakatzir)

shawkling : ritual swaying while davening; it is practiced to remind us that we were once nomads, and resembles the swaying of the body while riding a camel.

shayach : conceivable

shchenim : neighbors

she’arim : gates

she’elah : question

She’elat Geshamim : the petition for rain

She’elot u-Teshuvot : questions and responses to queries on matters of Jewish law by rabbis and sages

she’erit : remnant; remainder

shebalev : inwardly

shebet : a stick (for punishing, writing, fighting, ruling, walking, etc.) or (figuratively) a clan : correction, dart, rod, scepter, staff, tribe

shebuah : (alt. shabuwa) lit. sevened, i.e. a week (specifically of years) : seven, week

Shechinah : (alt. Shekhinah) glorious presence of God. See Shekhinah.

shechita : the slaughtering of animals for meat as prescribed by the Torah

shed : demon / evil spirit

shedim : demons

sheelah : question

sheelot : kashes; questions

sheerit : remnant

shefach dahm : the shedding of blood

Shehecheyanu : lit.[God] who has kept us alive; this is the blessing for beginnings and other happy occasions in people’s lives, such as birth and marriage. It is also said at candlelighting, Kiddush and certain other specific times during festival observances … a blessing over mitzvot which are performed once a year or over new fruit in its season

shein : beautiful

sheker : falsehood; lies

sheketz : abomination

sheketz tameh : unclean creature

Shekhinah (alt. Shechinah) : God’s Presence in the world. : Aram. and late Heb., a word not in Scripture, but used by later Jews and by Christians to express the visible divine Presence, especially when resting between the cherubim over the mercy seat (from shakan). As the word denotes “glory” then to speak of “the Shekhna Glory” is redundant and means “Glory Glory”.

sheleimah : complete

shelemut : perfection; completeness

Sheloshim : the second period of mourning; thirty-day mourning period

shem : name (pl. shemot)

shem kodesh : (alt. shem hakodesh) religious name; most Jewish males have two names : a religious name, called the shem kodesh (or hakodesh), and a secular name, called the kinnui in Hebrew. The religious name is a Hebrew name, and the secular name is in whatever vernacular language is in use. Observant American Jews today (for example) have a religious Hebrew name, and a secular English name. Among the Jews of Eastern Europe, Yiddish was the everyday or secular language, so they had a religious Hebrew name and a secular Yiddish name, the kinnui. In France, the secular name is in French; in ancient Babylonia, the kinnui was in Babylonian; etc.

Shem Hameforash : the Ineffable Divine Name

shem tov : good name; good reputation

Shema : (alt. Shemab; Sh’ma) lit. hear … The most widely-known Jewish confession of faith in one God: “Shema Yisrael Adonai Elohenu Adonai Echad” (Hear, O Israel: the Lord is our God, the Lord is One). Deut. 6:4-9

shemen : oil

shemen mishchah : anointing oil

shemesh : sun

Shemini Atzeret : Literally: the eighth day of assembly; conclusion of Sukkot … The day following Sukkot and the end of that festival

shemitah : fallow

Shemoneh Esre : (alt. Esray, Shmoneh Esreh) Eighteen … the number of blessings originally in the important part of the daily prayers recited in silence while worshipers stand—hence this name is applied to all such standing prayers, although the daily service now has nineteen and other services seven blessings. Combines adoration with entreaty. Also called Amidah (standing) or simply Tefillah (prayer).

shemot : names (sg. shem)

shenayim : two

Sheol : abode of the dead; afterlife; the netherworld

sherut : service in the Beis HaMikdash

sheva : seven

Sheva Berachot : (alt. Birchot) lit. seven blessings; these are recited or chanted at a wedding ceremony prior to the sharing of a cup of wine by the bride and groom

shevach : (alt. shevakh) praise; commendation

shevarim : a shofar sound

shevarim : oxen

Shevat : Fifth month of Jewish year

shevet : tribe

shevu’ah : oath

shevuot : oaths

sheynah : sleep

sheynit : a second time

shfakhot : maid servants

shichrut : drunkenness

shiebud : obligation

shifcha : (alt. shifchah) bond maid

shiflut : lowliness

shiggot haAm : unintentional sins of the people

shikkor : drunkard

shikkorim : drunkards

shilton : rule

shin : next-to-last letter of the Hebrew alef-beit (first letter of Shaddai)

Shir Chadash : New Song

shirayim : Rebbe’s remainders

shiryon kaskasim : coat of scale armor

Shitre Erusin : A betrothal contract

shiur : lesson; Torah talk (pl. shiurim)

shiva : seven; the first period of mourning; seven-day mourning period, the first day of which is the day of burial

shivah haben : child of the week

shivim : seventy

shkoyach : well done

shleimut : perfection; completion

shliach : emissary, one sent forth with the full power and authority of the sender; Apostle (pl. Shlichim, shluchim)

Shlichus : (alt. Schlicot) Divine Mission

shlishit : third

shlita : control

shlitah atzmi : self-control

shloshah : three

shluchim : emissaries of the Rebbe; Melech HaMashiach (sg. shliach)

Shmad : Anti-Mashiach apostasy; apostate; destructive departure

shmattes : tatters; rags

Shmitah : Release : the seventh year in which the land lies fallow and debts are released or annulled … the Sabbatical year at the end of each seven year cycle

Shmo : His Name

shmonah asar : eighteen

Shmuel : a Sage of the Talmud; Samuel

shnayim : two

Shneym Asar : Twelve

shochet : ritual slaughterer, required by Jewish dietary laws for the preparation of kosher meat

shochvim es zachar : homosexuals

shoded : robber (pl. shodedim)

shofar : trumpet made from a ram’s horn used as warning, call to arms, and in celebration. Blown on Rosh haShanah and during the month of Elul. When Yeshua returns it will be with the “sound of the Shofar.”

Shofar Hagadol : The Great Trumpet

shofetim : judges

Shofetim : (alt. Shofitim) Judges; Book of the Bible … a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy

soin : already

shomayim : heaven

Shome’a Tefillah : (alt. Tefilah) “The One Who hears prayer …” one of the eighteen benedictions of the Amidah

shomer : lit. guardian; on guard … person who remains with the deceased so that the body is never left alone prior to burial

shomer masoret : religious devotion

shomrim : guards

shoresh : root

shoshvin : the chosson’s best man

shot : whip

shoteh : fool

shoter : law official

Shovavim Tat : a series of winter weeks whose Mondays and Thursdays are observed as fast days

shprach : diction

shrekliche : terrible

shtaig : working my way up; advancing; progressing

shtark : steadfastly

shtats : imposing; impressive

shtein : stop

shter : bother

shtetl : Jewish village

shtetlach : towns

shtey karnayim : two horns

shtiklech : misconduct ;

shtreimel : expensive hat

shuckle : to sway during prayer

shud : misfortune

shul : synagogue

shulchan : table

Shulchan Aruch : code of law applicable to today … the Book of codified Jewish Law, by Rabbi Yosef Karo

Shulchan Orech : table set for meal … one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony

shulchanot : tables

Shushan Purim : Purim celebration on Adar 15 by cities walled at the time of Joshua

shuttafim : partners

shuttafut : partnership

shvakh : commendation

shvateem : (alt. shvatim) tribes

shver : complex

Sicarii : a fanatic group of Zealots (literally meaning “cut throats”) as they were involved in political assassination of both Jews and Romans; named after the ice-pick-like dagger used to dispatch their victims via a thrust to the base of the brain. The talmid who betrayed Yeshua was Yehuda the Sicarius.

sichlut : foolishness

Siddur : (alt. Sidur) prayer book; the set order of prayers … daily and Sabbath prayer book (pl. Siddurim)

Sidra : Bible portion of the week, read on Sabbath (pl. Sedarim, alt. Sidrot)

Sifra : (alt. Sifre) Halakhic midrashim to Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy

sikhliyut : rationality

Siloam : a pool of water in Jerusalem

siman : sign; indication

simcha : joy

simchah : lit. joy; a happy event

Simchat Torah : Literally: joy of the Torah; holiday marking the conclusion of the yearly cycle of Torah readings and the beginning of the new cycle; the final fall holiday

sin’ah : hatred

sinas chinom : baseless hatred

sirah : boat

sitnah : accusation

Sivan : Ninth month of the Jewish year

sivlot : sufferings (pl. sevalot)

Siyum : the completion of the study of a Talmudic tractate. Sod : mystery

skikuy : drink

smolit : left

sochen : steward/estate manager

sodot : mysteries

sofer : a specially trained scribe; Torah-teacher; rabbi (pl. soferim, sofrim)

soimech : confident; putting their trust and being dependent

soivel : bearing with

soneh : hater

soreg : barrier of the holy precinct

sorrut : rebelliousness / insubordination

sotah : a woman suspected of adultery

soterim : policemen

stam : elementary

stater : coin

sterntichel : kerchief

Sukkot : (alt. Sukot) : booths, temporary dwellings; name of the festival that commemorates the Israelites’ wanderings in the desert after leaving Egypt … the Feast of Tabernacles (Booths) … One of three Pilgrim Feasts (sg. Sukkah, Sukah)

sunagoge : (Gk.) an assemblage of persons; specifically a Jewish “synagogue” (either the place or the meeting); by analogy a Christian “church” meeting : assembly, congregation, synagogue

sus : horse (pl. susim)

synagogue : a place constructed and fully dedicated for gathering and studying. After the destruction of the Temple, synagogues became a place of corporate worship.


t’fillin : black leather boxes containing scrolls of Scripture passages, also called phylacteries. Sometimes during prayers one box is affixed to one’s hand and arm and the other to one’s forehead as a physical effort to obey the passage in Deuteronomy 6:8 (Exodus 13:1-16; Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 11:13-21)

ta’am ha’elyon : the “upper” mode of cantilation of the passage of the Ten Commandments

ta’anug : evil pleasure

ta’anugot : evil pleasures

ta’avah : evil desire/lust

ta’avot : lusts

Taanit : a section of the Talmud on Fasts … a fast day

aaanit chalom : a fast over a bad dream

taavah : lust

tachanun : a prayer of supplication

tacharut : competition

tachlis : purpose

tachrichim : (alt. tachrichin) burial shrouds

tachtiy : the depths (figuratively a pit, the womb) : low (parts, -er, -er parts, -est), nether (part)

tag : ornamental flourish or “tittle”on Hebrew letters

taharah : ritual purification of the deceased in preparation for burial … washing of the dead body

tahor : ritually pure or clean … able to enter the Beit HaMikdash or Mishkan

takhrikhim : shrouds prescribed by Jewish law

takhmos : night-hawk

takif : influential man

Tal : (Dew) The prayer for dew (in Eretz Yisrael) recited on first day of Passover

tallit : prayer shawl with ceremonial fringes on four corners (alt. talit, talis)

tallit katan (alt. talit) : a small prayer shawl; a special undershirt with four corners each bearing tzitziyot

talmid : disciple, student (fem. talmidah; pl. talmidim); a true talmid does not only want to know what the teacher knows, he/she wants to be what the teacher is.

talmid chacham : a scholar of the Torah

Talmud : the two commentaries on the Mishnah, one produced in the Holy Land about AD 275, the other in Babylonia about AD 500; the designation for both the Mishnah and the commentaries on it (Gemara). The Talmud is the collected legal and ethical discussions of the rabbis.

tam’ei : (alt. tameh, tameis, tamei) ritually impure or unclean (specifically by virtue of contact with the dead), not able to enter the able to enter the Beit HaMikdash or Mishkan

tamid : the daily sacrifice in the Sanctuary

tamim : faultless

Tammuz : tenth month on the Jewish civil calendar

tana : rabbi in the Mishnaic period (pl. tannaim, alt. tana’im)

Tanakh : (alt, Tanach, Tenach) the Hebrew Bible, consisting of Torah, Prophets, and Writings … an acronym formed from the initial letters of the Hebrew Torah, Nevi’im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings)

tanshemet : horned owl

Targum : (Translation) Traditionally the name given the Aramaic translation of the Bible, read to the populace in Babylonian periods. The custom of reading services in Aramaic following the Hebrew goes back to hundreds of years before the great diaspora. Except for some interpolations and paraphrases, the Targum Bavli, also known as the Targum Onkelos, is a very faithful translation. Less faithful to the text are the Targum Yerushalmi and others of fragmentary character (pl. Targumim)

tarnegol : cock

Tashlich : traditional Rosh haShanah afternoon ceremony in which individuals symbolically cast their sins (crumbs) into a body of water … the casting away of sin

tata : papa

tav : mark

tavnit : pattern; copy

techinnah : petition; supplication

techiyah : resurrection

tefillah : (alt. tefilah) lit. prayer; also refers to the central group of prayers in each service, alternatively called the Amidah or Shemoneh Esre (pl. tefillos, tefillot)

Tefillah Zakah : (alt. Tefilah) “a prayer of purity” recited upon the advent of Yom Kippur before Kol Nidrey

tefillin : (alt. tefilin) black square leather boxes containing parchments with sections of the Torah (Shma etc.). Jewish men are obligated to wear them the forehead and arm during prayers every morning. (Of course if one sees the sunrise 45 times a day as an astronaut might, this may create problems.)

Tehillim : Psalms

tehom : abyss

tehom gedolah : a great abyss; chasm

tehorah : pure

tehorim : clean

Teki’ah : a shofar sound

tekufa : era; period

Tekufah : one of the four seasons of the year (pl. Tekufot)

tekumah : revival

telos : the point aimed at as a limit, i.e. (by implication) the conclusion of an act or state (termination, result, purpose); specifically an impost or levy (as paid) : continual, custom, end (-ing), finally, uttermost

telunnah : murmuring

tema’im : unclean

temarim : palms

Tenakh (alt. Tanach, Tenach) : Tanakh

teretz : excuse

Teruah : an awakening blast on the Shofar

terumah : contribution

terumah haissa : portion; offering of the dough

terutz : excuse

teshukot : desires

teshuvah : (alt. teshuva) lit. turning or returning; repentance … repentance from sin, spiritual reawakening … desire to strengthen the connection between oneself and the sacred … turning toward God

Tetragrammaton : the four Hebrew letters hwhy usually transliterated YHWH or YHVH that form a Biblical “proper Name” of God

Tetzaveh : a portion in the Book of Exodus

teva : ark

teva : nature

tevel : world

Tevet : fourth month of the Jewish year

tevilah [lit. immersion] : the total immersing of one’s self in a mikvah (container of “living water”). Christian “baptism” is a based upon this concept, but has been changed from the practice followed by the early Messianic Believers. Whereas Christian “baptism” is performed upon the individual by another, generally a member of the clergy, tevilah is performed upon one’s self by the individual, and may may or may not be observed by “official witnesses.”

Therapeutae : sternly ascetic Jewish party whose views and practices were kindred to the Essenes in Palestine

tevunah : wisdom

tief : deep and profound; erudite; keen

tiferet : splendor; beauty

tihur : purification

tikkun : restoration; repair

Tikkun Chatzot : (alt. Tikun) a prayer of lamentation over the destruction of the Sanctuary, recited at midnight

Tikkun Leil Shavuot : (alt. Tikun) lit. service of the night of Shavuot

tikkun olam : (alt. tikun) repairing our broken world

Tikkun Soferim : (alt. Tikun Sofrim) the set of rules for the writing of a Torah Scroll

tikvah : hope

tikvateinu : our hope

timtum halev : hardening of the heart

tipesh : idiot

tipshus : foolery

tipus : type; pattern

tish : table

Tishah Be’av : The ninth day of the month of Av; a day of mourning for the destruction of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem

tishen : tables

Tishri : (alt. Tishrei) (Ethanim) first month of the Hebrew civil calendar (September-October)

Titkabel : a verse in the kadish, “Let the prayers of Israel be accepted.”

tizkoret : reminder

to’evah : abomination

tochnit : master plan

todah : thanks, thank you, the thanksgiving offering in the Sanctuary

toeva : abomination

tohorah : purification

tohorat mishpakhah : family purity

tohu vavohu : disorder; chaos

tohuw : to lie waste; a desolation (of surface), i.e. desert; figuratively a worthless thing; in vain : confusion, empty place, without form, nothing, (thing of) nought, vain, vanity, waste, wilderness

toitzaa : outcome

tokhechah : reproof

toldah : (alt. towledah) descent, i.e. family; (figuratively) history : birth, generations

toldot : genealogies

Torah : teaching or instruction, but usually erroneously translated “law” … the instruction of God. In its most narrow sense, the Five Books of Moshe (Moses), the Pentateuch : B’resheet (Genesis), Sh’mot (Exodus), Vayikra (Leviticus), B’midbar (Numbers), D’varim (Deuteronomy), called the “Written Torah” and hand-written on a parchment scroll. The Torah plus the Prophets (Nevi’im) and Writings (K’tuvim) are together called the TaNaKh (TNK), Tenach (alt. Tanach, Tanakh, Tenakh), the Hebrew Bible, or the so-called “Old Testament.” In a broad sense, the whole written Word of God is the Torah, including both the Tanakh and the Ketuvim Schliachim (New Testament). In its broadest sense, “Torah” is all of Judaism, which flows from those Books. Additional material called the “Oral Torah” is considered in varying degrees as authoritative in traditional Judaism. Uncapitalized, the work can be understood as “principle.”

Torah-observant : walking in yielded obedience to the teaching of the Scriptures; in traditional Judaism this includes obeying the complex instructions of the Talmud as well.

torud : completely absorbed and involved

Tosefta : (alt. Tocefta) (Supplement) Anthology of tannaitic text parallel to Mishnah, but outside Mishnaic canon, and more expansive. Rabbi Nehemiah, second century, began the work; in the third century it was continued by Hiyya ben Abba and Oshaiah

tous ritztzuy : reconciliation

tov : good

tov l’teshuva : fruit worthy of repentance

tovim : good ones

tovot : good things

toyus : error

treif : (alt. trefah) lit. torn apart; food that is not ritually fit … the opposite of kosher

trombeniks : gluttons

Tru’ah : a shofar sound

Trumah : a heave offering, contribution … the seventh portion in the Book of Exodus

Trumpets, Feast of : the modern Rosh Ha-Shanah, the first day of Tishri, the seventh month of the Jewish calendar, celebrated (unbiblically) as the Jewish New Year

tsaphoon : hidden

tsemach : branch

tshuka : yearning

Tsion : Zion

tsur : rock

Tu Bishvat : fifteenth day of the month of Shevat; a minor holiday known as the New Year of the Trees, observed by planting trees

tugah : sadness

tum’a : uncleanness; impurity

tza’ar : pain and suffering

tzad : side

tzaddik : righteous man

Tzaddik : (alt. Tzadik) Chasidic sages were so called; they were often raised by their followers to the status of direct intermediaries with God, super-human miracle workers … a just man, righteous, upright (pl. Tzaddikim, alt. Tzadikim)

tzaddikim : righteous ones

tzafon : north

Tzafun : the phase of the Seder ceremony in which the hidden afikoman is eaten

tzar : narrow

tzarah : trouble

Tzarah Gedolah : Great Tribulation

tzarut ayin : envyings

tzavva’a : will

tzechok : laughter

tzedakah : contribution

tzedakah : (alt. tsedakah) lit. justice or righteousness; the Hebrew word we use for charity and charitable acts

tzedek : righteousness

Tzedokim : (alt. Tzedukim) Sadducees : Religio-political sect of Judaism in the late Second Temple period that focused on priestly functions and the sacrificial system … their views and practices were opposed to those of the Pharisees. They denied the authority of oral tradition, the resurrection of the dead, and the existence of angels.

tzelamim : idols

tzelem : image

tzevi’ut : hypocrisy

tzevua : (pl. tzevuim) hypocrite

tzfarde’im : frogs

tzidkat : righteousness

Tzidkatcha Tzedek : verses recited after the minchah prayer on Shabbat

Tziduk Hadin : a prayer of accepting God’s Judgment

tzitzis : (alt. tzitzit) ceremonially knotted fringes to be worn on all fourcornered garments (pl. tzitziyot); often translated “fringes” in Scripture.

tzive’ot zarim : armies of the aliens

tziveot haparashim : troops of cavalry-men

tznius : modesty

tzom; tzomot : fast; fastings

tzon : flock

tzorich iyun : unresolved puzzlement

tzoros : troubles

tzufloigen : dazed

tzufriedenkait : contentment

tzushtel : comparison


ugeret : easily seen; evident

Unleavened Bread, Feast of : The second of the seven Feasts of hwhy, which begins on the fifteenth of Nisan, directly after the Passover, and continues for seven days; a time when no leaven is to be eaten; also sometimes included in the festival of Passover, whereby the two are designated as one holiday or festival lasting eight days. Also Hag haMatzah

Untaneh Tokef : a passage describing Heavenly Judgment added to prayer on Rosh haShanah and Yom Kippur.

Ur : An ancient Sumerian city and district in southern Babylonia by the Euphrates River; the home of Avraham.

Ur’chatz : “celebrant washes,” one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony (see Rachatzah)

Ushpizin : the Seven Shepherds of Israel who “visit” every Jew’s sukkah on the Feast of Tabernacles.

Uva Letzion : a prayer composed of a selection of Scriptural verses


Va’era : the second portion in the Book of Exodus

Va’etchanan : the second portion in the Book of Deuteronomy

Vav : Hebrew letter w or v

Vayechal : a paragraph from Exodus chapter 32 and 34 read on a public fast

Vayelech : a portion in the Book of Deuteronomy

Vayechi : the last portion in the Book of Genesis

Ve’ahavta : lit. “and you shall love” … the prayer from Deuteronomy 6:5-9, that obligates Jews to love God and to teach Judaism to future generations; part of the Shema

Velamalshinim : a passage relating to slanderers and informers, prescribed as a nineteenth brachah added to the eighteen benedictions of the amidah prayer. See Birkat HaMinim.

Vezot Habrachah : the last portion in the Torah

vidui : confession

Vilna Gaon : One of the most prominent figures in the Torah world of recent centuries, his erudition covering (in addition to the natural sciences and mathematics) the entire field of Torah scholarship, on which he wrote some 70 works. Despite his extreme seclusion : his ascetic assiduity has become proverbial : he exerted a powerful influence on Jewish affairs. Since his time, the Yiddish term Litvak (“Lithuanian”) has come to stand for a scholarly and hard-core misnaged espousing the closely definable world-view whose prime ideologist and ideal personality is the Gaon.


Wayiqra : (alt.Vayiqra) Leviticus See listings under “V


Ya’aleh Veyavo : a passage added to the amidah prayer and to the Grace after the Meal on Festivals and New Moons when additional sacrifices were offered in the Sanctuary

yachatz : the breaking of the middle matzah of the ceremonial matzot during a Passover seder … one of the fifteen phases of the Seder ceremony

yad : hand

Yahadut : Judaism

Yahrzeit : a day of memorial

Yahweh : YHVH or YHWH … the Tetragrammatron … the four Hebrew letters hwhy usually transliterated YHWH or YHVH that form the proper Name of HaShem (insofar as it can be said that HaShem has a proper Name) … incorrectly translated in many English Bibles as “Jehovah” which is grammatically impossible to say in the Hebrew language … as nearly as the word can be translated into English, it means “I Am” … it was by this name that HaShem revealed himself to Moshe in the burning bush. Several times Yeshuah HaMashiach claimed to be “I Am” : thus either Yeshua is literally YHWH, the covenant God of Avraham, Yitzhak, and Ya’akov, or He is a liar and a fraud.

yaldah : girl

yam : sea

yamim : days

yamim mikedem : earlier days

Yamin Noraim : (alt. Yamim) lit. Days of Awe; the ten-day period beginning with Rosh haShanah and ending with Yom Kippur

yanshuf : great owl

yare’ach : moon

yarmulke : (Yid.) kippa or kipah, a skullcap worn by most male Jews during prayer

yashar : (alt. yashir ) straight

yashar mishpat : righteous judgment

yashrus : justice

yatzdik : justify

yavam : husband’s brother upon whom devolved the duty of marrying the former’s widow if left without children … the brother-in-law

Yavneh : a city that became the location of an academy and a central focus for the Jews once the Romans destroyed Jerusalem

yayin : wine

ye’ush : despair

yebamah : under Biblical laws, childless widow who was commanded to marry her late husband’s brother, so that a child might be named after the departed

yechidus : private meeting of the Rebbe with his Chassidim

Yehudi : Jew (pl. Yehudim)

yeled : child

yemach shemam : their name should be blotted out

yerida : to descend back; return

yerushah : inheritance

Yerushalayim : Jerusalem. The city of our God, and covenantal capital of Eretz Yisra’el : the Land of Israel

yeshanot : old things

yeshivah : Torah academy (pl. yeshivot)

Yeshua : (alt. Yashua, Yahshua, Yoshua, Yehoshua) Literally means “God saves” or “YHWH is my salvation.” Variants include Yahshua, Y’shua, Y’hoshua, and Y’hoshua. Because the Greek language has no equivalent of the Hebrew letters “yod” or “shin” and all masculine Greek names end in “s” the name was transliterated into Greek as “Iesous” in both the Septuagint and the Greek translation of the Apostolic Writings. When transliterated into English, the iota (“I”) became a “J” resulting in the spelling “Jesus.”

yeshuah : rescue; salvation; deliverance

yesod : foundation

yesodot : rudiments

yetomim : orphans

yetzer : impulse

yetzer ha’ra : impulse toward evil

yetzer ha’tov : impulse toward good

yetzurim : creatures

yetzurim hayam : creatures of the sea

Yevani : Greek (pl. Yevanim)

yi’ud merosh : predestination

yichud : time spent alone together by the bride and groom immediately after the wedding ceremony … bridal chamber … room entered by bride and groom where the two, in the consummation of the marriage, become one

yichus : lineage

Yiddish : The language spoken by the Ashkenazi (Jews of European ancestry); it is a dialect of old German written with the Hebrew alephbet.

Yiddishkeit : the state or quality of being Jewish; Jewishness

Yir’as Shomayim : Fear of Heaven

yirah : fear

Yirmeyahu : Jeremiah

yisurim : sufferings; torments

Yitro : Jethro; the sixth portion in the Book of Exodus

Yizkor : (“May He remember”) Prayers for the departed, recited on Yom Kippur, Shemini Atzeret, last day of Passover, second day of Shavuot

yod : (alt. yud) tenth and smallest letter of the Hebrew aleph-bet

yold : fool

yom : day

Yom Habikkurim : The Day of First Fruits, barley harvest, the day from which we start counting the Omer 50 days to Shavuot (Pentecost)

Yom haDin : Literally: Day of Judgment; one of the names for Rosh haShanah

Yom haPeduth : The Day of Redemption

Yom haZikkaron : Literally: The Day of Remembrance; one of the names for Rosh haShanah

Yom Kippur : (alt. Kipur) The Day of Atonement; The Great Fast

Yom Kippur Katan (alt. Kipur) : the eve of a New Moon, a “little” Day of Atonement

Yom Teruah : Rosh haShanah : The Day of the Awakening Blast; The Feast of Trumpets

Yom Tov— a Festival Day, holiday (pl. Yamim Tovim)

yom yom : daily (day by day)

Yoma : a tractate of the Mishnah on Yom Kippur

yoma arichta : one “long” day, two days considered as one

yonah : dove (pl. yonim)

yoreh : first Autumn rain

yoreshim : heirs

yoshen : oldness

yosher : rectitude

Yotzer : Creator

Yotzer Ha’Adam : Hebrew for “Creator of Man.” It is the 2nd of the 7 blessings that are recited at the end of a wedding feast (see the Complete Art Scroll Siddur P.206)

Yotzrot : liturgical poems added to the shacharit prayer

Yovel : a Jubilee year at the end of a fifty year cycle

Yud : (alt. Yod) The 10th and smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet (aleph-bet).

yunge leit : young people


Z’roah Adonai : Arm of the Lord

zach : thing

zachar : male

zahav : gold

zaken : (alt. zaqen, zeken) elder (-est), aged, old or ancient man or woman, senator (pl. zakenim)

zamlet : collect

zannay : fornicator

zannayim : fornicators

zaqen : (alt. zaken, zeken) elder (-est), aged, old or ancient man or woman, senator (pl. zaqenim)

zar : stranger; foreigner (pl. zarim)

zchus : merit; privileged

ze’ev : wolf (pl. ze’evim)

zechus : merit

zeken : elder (-est), aged, old or ancient man or woman, senator (pl. zekenim)

zelba : same

Zeman Mattan Toratenu : (alt. Matan) Literally: the Season of the Giving of Our Torah; another name for Shavuot

Zeman Simchatenu : Literally: the Season of Our Joy; another name for


zemanniyim : temporary

zemirot : table songs

zenut : fornication (pl. zenunim)

zera : seed

zerizut : diligence

zeroah : (alt. z’roah) Hebrew for “arm”; in animals, “shoulder”; the shank bone on the seder plate representative of the Paschal sacrifice (occasionally a chicken neck if a lamb shank is unobtainable).

zevakhim : sacrifices

zicher : certain

zichron : memory

Zif (Iyar) : Eighth month of Jewish year

zikaron : remembrance

Zikhrnot : A portion of the Rosh haShanah service that deals with divine remembrance

zikkaron : a memorial

zikkuy : acquittal

zililut da’as : sober-mindedness

zimah : (alt. zimmah) : lewdness; sensuality

Zion : One of the many names for Jerusalem and the surrounding area.

Zionism : The belief that there should be a Jewish national homeland in the historic land of Israel

zitzfleisch : patience

zman : time, season (pl. zmanim)

zolel : glutton

zoneh : fornicator

zonim : sexually immoral

zonot : prostitutes

zrizus : reliability

Zushia, Rabbi Meshullam : Rebbe in Hanipoli. Disciple of the Maggid of Mezritch; brother of Reb Elimelech; Died 1800, 2 Sh’vat.